Watershed - Pigeon River (SH06)
Pigeon River Watershed

Details

The Pigeon River Watershed is the northernmost watershed in the Sheboygan River Basin. Nearly half of the 79 square mile drainage area is located in Manitowoc County, while the other half is located in the northern portions of Sheboygan County. The Pigeon River originates from an outlet of Pigeon Lake in Manitowoc County. Many small tributaries converge on this outlet to form the larger Pigeon River. The river flows generally south and east to its confluence with Lake Michigan in the City of Sheboygan. Tributaries to the Pigeon River include the Meeme River, Fisher Creek, Grandma Creek and nine unnamed tributaries. There are four named lakes in the watershed (Pigeon, Horseshoe, Spring and Jetzers) and many small, unnamed lakes. Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural, but urbanization is proceeding. The Village of Howards Grove is completely contained in the watershed. Portions of the Village of Kohler and the City of Sheboygan also fall within the watershed. Water quality in the watershed is considered good in the headwaters area, and fair to poor in the lower reaches. High turbidity, nuisance algae and vegetative growth, low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform bacteria counts, and sedimentation all contribute to the poor water quality conditions in the watershed. Factors causing these effects include agricultural and urban runoff, construction site erosion, stream channelization and point source discharges.

Date  2001

Ecological Landscapes for Pigeon River Watershed

Ecological Landscapes

The Pigeon River Watershed is located primarily in the Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape which stretches from southern Door County west across Green Bay to the Wolf River drainage, then southward in a narrowing strip along the Lake Michigan shore to central Milwaukee County. Owing to the influence of Lake Michigan in the eastern part of this landscape, summers there are cooler, winters warmer, and precipitation levels greater than at locations farther inland. Dolomites and shales underlie the glacial deposits that blanket virtually all of the Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape. The dolomite Niagara Escarpment is the major bedrock feature, running across the entire landscape from northeast to southwest. Series of dolomite cliffs provide critical habitat for rare terrestrial snails, bats, and specialized plants. The primary glacial landforms are ground moraine, outwash, and lakeplain. The topography is generally rolling where the surface is underlain by ground moraine, variable over areas of outwash, and nearly level where lacustrine deposits are present. Important soils include clays, loams, sands, and gravels. Certain landforms, such as sand spits, clay bluffs, beach and dune complexes, and ridge and swale systems, are associated only with the shorelines of Lake Michigan and Green Bay. Historically, most of this landscape was vegetated with mesic hardwood forest composed primarily of sugar maple, basswood, and beech. Hemlock and white pine were locally important, but hemlock was generally restricted to cool moist sites near Lake Michigan. Areas of poorly drained glacial lakeplain supported wet forests of tamarack, white cedar, black ash, red maple, and elm, while the Wolf and Embarrass Rivers flowed through extensive floodplain forests of silver maple, green ash, and swamp white oak. Emergent marshes and wet meadows were common in and adjacent to lower Green Bay, while Lake Michigan shoreline areas featured beaches, dunes, interdunal wetlands, marshes, and highly diverse ridge and swale vegetation. Small patches of prairie and oak savanna were present in the southwestern portion of this landscape.

Date  2010

Watershed Documents
Watershed Grants
Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Control
Date
4/15/2017
Waters Involved
Pigeon Lake
Status
Complete

Pigeon Lake Of Manitowoc County Inc: Pigeon Lake Ais Control & Prevention Project: Pigeon Lake of Manitowoc County, Inc. is sponsoring a project to monitor Eurasian water milfoil (EWM) population and guide the lake association on selecting the appropriate form of active management and its timing. Further, the project will monitor the action\2019s results and provide future strategies to maintain control.

Project final deliverables include: all data collected, agendas and minutes for planning meetings, and a lake management plan that includes methodologies, results, and management alternatives discussion with an implementation plan.

Specific project activities include: 1) Plan and implement a large-scale 2,4-D herbicide treatment in 2017; 2) Conduct herbicide concentration monitoring in association with the treatment; 3) Monitor native plant and EWM populations in 2017 and 2018; 4) Conduct acoustic-based submergent aquatic vegetation bio-volume survey; 5) Conduct Clean Boats Clean waters watercraft inspections including the July 4th Landing Blitz program; 6) Conduct volunteer or professional-based hand-harvesting activities; 7) Monitor EWM populations by volunteers; 8) Develop an annual and final AIS monitoring and control strategy assessment reports.

This scope summarizes the project detail provided in the application and does not negate tasks/deliverables described therein. Data, records, and reports, including GIS-based maps, and digital images, must be submitted to the Department in a format specified by the regional Lake Biologist.

If consultant is to provide final report, it is recommended that Grantee provide DNR Lake Coordinator with a draft for comment on report adequacy prior to making final payment to the consultant. DNR to receive both paper and electronic .pdf copies of the final report along with, or prior to submission of grantee's final payment request


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Control
Date
4/15/2017
Waters Involved
Pigeon River
Status
Complete

Ozaukee Washington Land Trust: Owlt Collaborative Phragmites Project - Pigeon River Estuary: The Ozaukee Washington Land Trust is sponsoring a project to control an extensive Phragmites infestation along the Pigeon River Estuary in Sheboygan County.

Project final deliverables: a report that compiles and maps the extent of Phragmites in the defined project area, an Adaptive Management Plan, a list of treatments (chemical, mowing, burning) that took place on each parcel with dates of treatments and results of post treatment assessments and a summary of the treatments that took place with the federal grant dollars (adjacent to the defined project area for this grant).

Specific project activities: 1) ground truthing of Phragmites in the defined project area; 2) development of maps (field based and GIS based) depicting the extend and distribution of Phragmites in the defined project area; 3) development of an adaptive management plan; 4) chemical treatment, mowing and burning of Phragmites stands, 5) post treatment assessments; 6) development of native plant revegetation plans for individual parcels; 7) installation of revegetation plans for some parcels and 8) development of three Invasive Plant Monitoring Field and Training days for the general public and interested volunteers.

Special Conditions: 1) All data shall be entered into the SWIMS database; 2) Volunteer lists, equipment use lists and signatures shall be maintained for reporting in kind volunteer labor and equipment.

This scope summarizes the project detail provided in the application and does not negate tasks/deliverables described therein. Data, records, and reports, including GIS-based maps, and digital images, must be submitted to the Department in a format specified by the regional Lake Biologist.

The Grantee should provide the DNR Lake Coordinator with a draft for comment on report adequacy prior to making final payment to the consultant. DNR to receive both paper and electronic .pdf copies of the final report along with, or prior to submission of grantee's final payment request.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Education
Date
4/1/2013
Waters Involved
Pigeon Lake
Status
Complete

Pigeon Lake Of Manitowoc County Inc: Pigeon Lake Of Manitowoc County: Pigeon Lake of Manitowoc County proposes to create an updated aquatic plant management plan for Pigeon Lake with an emphasis placed upon alternatives for the control of Eurasian water milfoil. Specifically, Pigeon Lake Association will:
1. **9** Compile and analyze available water quality and fisheries data.
2. **9** Conduct a watershed assessment review to verify watershed boundaries, update general land use and perform basic predictive modeling.
3. **9** Assess the aquatic plant community utilizing early-season aquatic invasive species survey, existing point-intercept survey data, and aquatic plant community mapping.
4. **9** Conduct a shoreline condition and course woody habitat assessment.
5. **9** Provide for stakeholder participation and education by holding a kickoff meeting, a planning meeting and a wrap-up meeting.
6. **9** Generate an updated aquatic plant management and implementation plan.
The project elements and deliverables are specified in the grant application materials submitted to the Department dated February 1, 2013.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
7/1/1997
Waters Involved
English Lake
Status
Complete

English Lake Management District: Lmi-English Lake Management District Wetland Detention Basin: English Lake Management District proposes to construct a wetland detention basin east of English Lake to treat agricultural runoff from a nearby barnyard/feedlot and cropland. The wetland basin will be built from an approved design to maximize sediment and nutrient removal efficiency. The project activities include site preparation and construction of an approximately 300 foot long dike that will create a detention basin that will result in a wetland about 1.2 acres in surface. The rock spillway and complete approved planting of wetland and aquatic vegetation are also included in this project.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2001
Waters Involved
English Lake
Status
Complete

English Lake Management District: Lmi-Df-English Lake Drain Tile Diversion Df Study: The English Lake Management District proposes to conduct a diagnostic/feasibility study on drain tile diversion. The project will consist of a site topographic survey; surface, ground and lake water monitoring; drain tile investigation; threatened and endangered species review; public education and involvement and a final report. This final report will contain the collected data and review of alternatives identified in prior planning grants; examination of alternatives based on feasibility, cost and benefits; and an implementtion plan will be selected as the best management option and detailed in this report.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2003
Waters Involved
English Lake
Status
Complete

English Lake Management District: Lmi-English Lake Se Drain Tile Diversion Project: The English Lake Protection and Rehabilitation District propose to divert a farmland drain tile that currently discharges to English Lake. The drain tile will be re-routed to discharge to a near-by forested wetland, whereby reducing the phosphorus and sediment loading to English Lake. A final report will be provided both in hard copy and electronically.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2007
Waters Involved
English Lake
Status
Complete

English Lake Management District: Acq-English Lake "Pluess" Land Aquisition: The English Lake Protection and Rehab District proposes to purchase 9.82 acres of land known as the "Pluess" property. As part of the District's match, they will use proceeds from a bargain sale and the donated value of .33 acre of property known as the "Burns" property.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2000
Waters Involved
Silver Lake
Status
Complete

Manitowoc County: Res-Silver Lake Diversion Project: The Silver Lake Protection and Rehabilitation District proposes to complete the diversion of Silver Creek from Silver Lake which will immediately and significantly lower the amount of sediment and organic loading from the creek into the lake and inhibit migration of undesirable fish species into the lake. The project will consist of bank riprap, outlet control structure, peat berm, maintenance, site ground work, design and consultant services and other miscellaneous structures and activities.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2003
Waters Involved
Silver Lake
Status
Complete

Manitowoc County Lakes Assn: Lmi-Silver Lake Restoration Phase 2: The Manitowoc County Lakes Association proposes to complete Phase 2 of the Silver Lake restoration project. This project will significantly reduce the internal nutrient loading contribution to Silver Lake and reclaim a balanced fishery and lake habitat. This will be achieved through 1) complete eradication of the primarily rough fish population using rotenone, 2) alum treatment to inactivate/reduce internal nutrient load for lake sediments, 3) restocking and regulation of the sport fishery, and 4) terrestrial and littoral habitat restoration along 650 feet of shoreline in the county/city park. The main product will be the restoration of Silver Lake. Press releases, newsletters, and presentations will provide information and education to the public.

Progress reports and a final report will be provided to the Department of Natural Resources both in hard copy and electronically.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
3/5/1996
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Sheboygan County: Acq-Gerber Lakes Land Acquisition - Hayes Property: Sheboygan County will acquire 108.9 acres of land located in Section 35, Town of Rhine at the eastern edge of Wisconsin's Kettle Morraine for lake protection and public outdoor recreation purposes. The property includes three lakes - Big Gerber, Little Gerber, and a 1+ acre spring pond that are part of the Sheboygan River Watershed. The primary goals of the property's management plan are (1) to permanently preserve and protect the diversity and uniqueness of the existing land cover including coniferous and deciduous forest, meadow, open water, and adjoining wetland. The approximately 25 acres of upland cropland area will be established in a permanent cover of native prairie and fruit bearing shrubs and trees to eliminate future erosion into the lakes and the adjoining Otter Creek, (2) to utilize the property for natural study and appreciation, outdoor skills training, and passive recreation and enjoyment. It is anticipated that the Sheboygan County Outdoor Skills Center will relocate to the existing farm residence and buildings on the property. Eligible costs are outlined on the attached Cost Estimate Worksheet.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2007
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

English Lake Management District: Acq-English Lake "Pluess" Land Aquisition: The English Lake Protection and Rehab District proposes to purchase 9.82 acres of land known as the "Pluess" property. As part of the District's match, they will use proceeds from a bargain sale and the donated value of .33 acre of property known as the "Burns" property.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/18/1993
Waters Involved
Jetzers Lake
Status
Complete

Sheboygan County: Jetzers Lake Management Planning: Conduct water quality and water level monitoring. COnduct a watershed inventory which will include delineation of watershed boundaries, soils, slopes, vegetation and environmentally sensitive lands. Calculate sediment and phosphorus loading to the lakefrom delineated land use areas. Conduct a hydrologic/hydraulic analysis for the lake and Fishers Creek. Prepare a nutrient budget for the lake. Information will ne disseminated to the public by newsletter, local newspaper articles, public neetings andreport mailings. Project results will be reposited at Sheboygan County, Town of Herman and local library.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
7/12/1993
Waters Involved
Pigeon Lake
Status
Complete

Pigeon Lake Sanitary District: Pigeon Lake Management Planning: Conduct water quality monitoring. Revise bathymetric map of lake. Map and inventory watershed for land use, nutrient load estimates, and pollution sources.Conduct a macrophyte survey. Information will be disseminated to the public by newsletter, public meeting, local newspaper articles, and report mailings.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2004
Waters Involved
Pigeon Lake
Status
Complete

Town Of Liberty: Pigeon Lake Water Quality & Apm Study: The Town of Liberty Sanitary District #1 in cooperation with the Pigeon Lake Association proposes to conduct a study on Pigeon Lake to compare the existing water quality and aquatic plant community to earlier studies to determine whether conditions have significantly changed. Specifically, the project will collect and review existing data, evaluate lake water chemistry, evaluate internal and external phosphorus sources, examine the aquatic plant community, and revise and amend the management recommendations made in the 1995 report regarding lake and aquatic plant management.

A hard copy and electronic copy of the report will be submitted to the Department of Natural Resources. The Pigeon Lake Association and the Town of Liberty Sanitary District #1 will each receive one hard copy of the report. The report will also be provided on a CD so that the Pigeon Lake Association can make additional copies of the report for distribution as they choose


Grant Details
Urban Nonpoint - Stormwater Planning
Date
1/1/2005
Waters Involved
Pigeon River
Status
Complete

Village Of Howards Grove: Stormwater Management Plan & Development: development of a storm water management plan, to include creation of stormwater, erosion & illicit discharge control ordinances, mapping, assessment of alternative practice installations, and creation of a municipal storm water utility.


Grant Details
Urban Nonpoint - Stormwater Planning
Date
1/1/2005
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Town Of Sheboygan - Dpw: Stormwater Planning Projects: development of a storm water management plan, to include creation of stormwater, erosion & illicit discharge control ordinances, mapping, assessment of alternative practice installations, and creation of a municipal storm water utility.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2003
Waters Involved
Pigeon River
Status
Complete

Ellwood H May Envir Park Trust, Sheboygan Co: Testing The Waters Educational Project-Pigeon River: This grant is for the "Testing the Waters" program that is coordinated by the Sheboygan School District. The purpose of the project is to involve high school students in collection and analyzing water quality data from several stream locations within the Sheboygan River Basin. Students and teachers learn important lessons about river ecology and impacts of pollution as part of this project. The goal of this organization is to assist the "Testing the Waters" Program and as a result enhance the membership and organizational effectiveness of their River Management Organization.

Teachers and students will interpret and report water quality datat ata an annual public forum. The grant will help fund the program for three years. A final report will submitted to the WDNR at the end of the project period. This will be provided in both a paper copy and an electronic format. Information will be disseminated to the public as described in the grant application.


Monitoring & Projects

Projects including grants, restoration work and studies shown below have occurred in this watershed. Click the links below to read through the text. While these are not an exhaustive list of activities, they provide insight into the management activities happening in this watershed.

Grants and Management Projects
Pigeon River Watershed
Watershed Recommendations
Best Management Practices, Implement
Sheboygan County Farm Nonpoint Source BMPs
Date
Status
This project is a landowner installation of nonpoint source best management practices to contribute to the restoration of Wisconsin's waters and was funded by the 319 grant.
3/13/2018
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Engage Volunteers in Monitoring/Restoration
 
Date
Status
Water quality biologists should continue to work with the Pigeon River Water Action Volunteers in conducting water quality monitoring throughout the Pigeon River Watershed.
1/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Aquatic Biology
Monitor biology on WBIC: 62600
Date
Status
Conduct biological (mIBI or fIBI) monitoring on Unnamed, WBIC: 62600, AU:948890
5/21/2016
Proposed
Projects
 
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
Monitor Horseshoe Lake for TP
Date
Status
The lake is fairly good condition compared to other Manitowoc County lakes. It is two-story because it is stocked with trout but probably not many trout survive year to year. At about 4 meters the hypolimnion goes anoxic. So the lake may be impaired but a TP criteria of 15 would be impossible for any lake in Manitowoc County to meet. I would prefer to see it listed if it exceeds the criteria of 20 instead of 15.
8/20/2019
Proposed
 
Monitor to Evaluate Projects
 
Date
Status
Conduct monitoring on the Pigeon River to determine if it should be listed on the Impaired Waters List
7/15/2008
Planned
 
Nine Key Element Plan
Pigeon River PWS Plan - Nine Key Element Plan
Date
Status
Pigeon River PWS Plan - Nine Key Element Plan - The Pigeon River Priority Watershed Project plan assesses the nonpoint sources of pollution in the Pigeon River Watershed and guides the implementation of nonpoint source control measures. These control measures are needed to meet specific water resource objectives for the Pigeon River and its tributaries. The purpose of this project is to reduce the amount of pollutants originating from nonpoint sources that reach surface water and groundwater within the Pigeon River Priority Watershed Project area.
10/1/1997
In Progress
Projects
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
City of Plymouth Stormwater Planning
Date
Status
This project is an installation of nonpoint source best management practices to contribute to the restoration of Wisconsin?s waters and was funded by the 319 grant. Storm water planning activities will be undertaken by the municipality and will result in the following products: new construction erosion control ordinance; new low impact development/conservation subdivision ordinance; new storm water ordinance for new development and re-development; other new ordinances that affect runoff from the developed urban area; and development and implementation of a new financing mechanism for funding the storm water program; and a new storm water management plan for the entire developed urban area.
1/1/2018
In Progress
Projects
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
City of Sheboygan Stormwater Management Plan Update
Date
Status
This project is an installation of nonpoint source best management practices to contribute to the restoration of Wisconsin?s waters and was funded by the 319 grant. Storm water planning activities will be undertaken by the municipality and will result in the following products: updated storm water management plan for the entire developed urban area; and an updated storm water management plan for new development.
1/1/2018
In Progress
Projects
 
TMDL Implementation
Silver Lake TMDL
Date
Status
Silver Lake, located in Manitowoc Rapids Township, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, in the Manitowoc River Basin, was listed as impaired due to excess phosphorus. The Lake is nutrient (phosphorus (P)) impaired as a result of agriculture, internal loading and local land use, is listed on the 1998 303(d) list as a high priority water and external load sources are nonpoint source (NPS) dominated. The designated use for Silver Lake is a full recreation, warm water sport fishery. Pollutant export data and information on the soils, topography, and other background information on the Silver Lake watershed is included in the Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Plan for the Sevenmile-Silver Creek Priority Watershed, dated February 1987.
8/1/2007
In Progress
Projects
Documents
 
Water Quality Planning
River Basin Partnership Willow Creek
Date
Status
The impact of current and future land use on water quality conditions in Willow Creek are not well understood. Therefore, planning needs to be completed to help guide the types of BMP?s and management policies that will be needed to preserve and restore water quality and habitat in the watershed. The watershed plan can identify types of restoration and stream improvement projects that could be implemented.
12/21/2009
In Progress
Projects
 
Pigeon River WatershedWatershed History Note

Howards Grove is a village located within the Pigeon River Watershed in Sheboygan County. In 1846, several families from Germany settled in what is now Howards Grove and the surrounding areas. Many of the original buildings are still standing. One of the early established businesses was the Herman House, a tavern known for many years as Kolberg's Tavern and is now the site of Howard's Pantry. Throughout the late 1800's new businesses were established. There were cheese factories, wagon implement and harness makers, shoemakers, carpenters, blacksmiths and cigar makers. In 1890 a saw and grist mill were sold to Herman Sprenger, who added a roller mill and cheese box factory. This is now the site of Lakeshore Pallet. A general store, built on Millersville Avenue in 1868 is now the location of Inside Out Designs. The State Bank of Howards Grove was organized in 1913. When the bank built a new building in 1950, the original building was moved across the street and today is used as both a home and a barbershop. Howards Grove was named after H.B. Howard, who built a hotel among a beautiful grove of trees, and added a post office. Later a store and livery were added. Operated into the early 1900's, it is now the site of Klemme's Wagon Wheel restaurant. The southern part of the Village, known at the time as Millersville, was named after H.G. Mueller, who built a home and saw mill on 3 1/2 acres. By 1854 he had purchased most of the land in that area and laid it out in lots. Prior to 1967, Millersville and Howards Grove were two small, unincorporated communities in the Town of Herman. After the Howards Grove-Millersville Sanitary District was formed, the two communities combined into one and incorporation into a single village took place on August 1, 1967, with a population of 927. The village had the distinction of having the longest name of any village in Wisconsin, but on Nov. 2, 1971, residents voted to shorten the name to Howards Grove.

Date  2011