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Cool-Cold Headwater, Macroinvertebrate, Cool-Warm Headwater
Fish and Aquatic Life
Francis Creek is a 6.8 mile tributary to the West Twin River that has a steep gradient (29.6 feet per mile). Much of the watershed is agricultural. Bottom substrate in the creek consists of gravel, cobble and muck and stream habitat has been rated as fair to good (Bougie and Cleereman 1996). Francis Creek is classified as a warmwater forage fishery due to limited fish habitat and low flow, making establishment of a gamefish population unlikely. Surveys in 2002 found a diverse forage fish community that was dominated by warmwater species such as white sucker and creek chub and several coolwater species represented by brook lamprey and mottled sculpin. A large number of redside dace were also captured, indicating low to moderate stream turbidity. The stream received a fish IBI ranking of good.
Author Mary Gansberg
Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.
Monitor Fish Community
Monitor stream to evaluate fish community and water condition of Francis Creek (use warmwater IBI).
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
Provide encouragement and guidance to Denmark and the Village of Francis Creek for conducting stormwater BMPs voluntarily.
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
Conduct groundwater sampling to determine whether herbicide and
pesticide contamination exists in the Village of Francis Creek.
Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable
Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.
Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.
Grants and Management Projects
|WBIC||Official Waterbody Name||Station ID||Station Name||Earliest Fieldwork Date||Latest Fieldwork Date||View Station||View Data|
|87600||Francis Creek||363270||Francis Creek - Hwy R||3/30/1994||11/3/1994||Map||Data|
|87600||Francis Creek||10009803||Francis Creek - Francis Creek||10/23/1978||10/18/2018||Map||Data|
|87600||Francis Creek||363029||Francis Creek - Parkway North Of Vill||Map||Data|
Francis Creek is located in the West Twin River watershed which is 180.11 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (54.30%), grassland (21.50%) and a mix of wetland (10.60%) and other uses (13.80%). This watershed has 360.91 stream miles, 1,898.59 lake acres and 10,189.53 wetland acres.
Nonpoint Source Characteristics
This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Medium for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.
Francis Creek is considered a Cool-Cold Headwater, Macroinvertebrate, Cool-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.
Cool (Cold-Transition) Headwaters are small, usually perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon (<10 per 100 m), transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.