Kinnickinnic River, Kinnickinnic River Watershed (SC01)
Kinnickinnic River, Kinnickinnic River Watershed (SC01)
Kinnickinnic River (2601800)
0.52 Miles
11.95 - 12.47
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Cool-Cold Mainstem
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2017
Good
 
St. Croix
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Yes
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
No

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Cold (Class I Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species through natural reproduction. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Cold (Class I Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species through natural reproduction. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Cold
Streams capable of supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.

Historical Description

Kinnickinnic River -T29N, R18W, Sec. 36 to T28N, R19W, Sec. 36, Surface Acres = 36.3, Miles = 15.0, Gradient = 6 feet per mile.
Flows southwest into Pierce County and Lake St. Croix. Managed for brook and brown trout, it also has rainbow trout present. The Kinnickinnic Wildlife Area consisting of mostly leased land encompasses most of the stream's length in
St. Croix County. This stream improvement project is one of the three original habitat development demonstration projects initiated in 1949. There are approximately 14 miles of state-leased streambank and .5 miles of state-owned frontage here for acreages totaling 192.4 acres leased and 8.84 acres owned by the Department. Access may be had from 10 road bridges. Fifteen homes and cottages are situated along the stream. Muskrat and beaver are an additional wildlife resource here. A large infiltration area above this stream keeps its springs well supplied.

From: Sather, LaVerne M. and Threinen, C.W., 1961. Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of St. Croix County, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  1961

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Kinnickinnic River, Kinnickinnic River Watershed (SC01) Fish and Aquatic LifeKinnickinnic River, Kinnickinnic River Watershed (SC01) RecreationKinnickinnic River, Kinnickinnic River Watershed (SC01) Fish Consumption

General Condition

The Kinnickinnic River was assessed during the 2018 listing cycle; new total phosphorus sample data were clearly below the 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. This water was meeting this designated use and was not considered impaired.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

General Condition

The Kinnickinnic River is an outstanding resource water and is considered one of the most outstanding Class I Trout streams in the state of Wisconsin.The Kinnickinnic River has one of the highest densities of brown trout in the state. Trout densities range from 2,000 to 12,000 trout per stream mile.The river is classified as an ORW above STH 35 and the remaining portion of the river classified as Class I trout is an ERW. The trout fishery and aquatic habitat is threatened by agricultural and urban NPS pollution.The urban development from the City of River Fals continues to increase the amounbt of untreated urban stormwater runoff being discharged to the stream. The department funded the development of a comprehensive plan for the city of River Falls in in 1991 (and a sewer service area plan in 1998). The implementation of plan recommendations will be critical for the protection of the riveras well as the control of rural sources of NPS pollution.

Date  1992

Author  Lisa Helmuth

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.

Reports

Recommendations

Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Friends of the Kinni (FOTK) is sponsoring a project to train local citizens in the use of the DNR-developed procedures for viewing bucket assessments of benthic algal biomass & facilitate development of an on-going, sustainable citizen-based biomonitoring program on the Kinni that involves annual benthic algal biomonitoring and reporting of findings to member organization of the KWP and DNR. The protocols, established by the DNR for assessing if a stream is exhibiting a biological response to phosphorus, (DNR's Phosphorus Response Criteria). The project includes establishing biomonitoring stations on the Kinni. Monitoring protocol for volunteers will be refined and adapted from DNR protocols. Training and technology transfer of method to FOTK staff & select number of citizen volunteers \2013 demonstrated with instruction by experts at GLEC. Field monitoring, the monitoring will be applied during the growing season commensurate with water quality sampling for phosphorus, and inclusive of a quality assurance and control audit. Reporting and information sharing. Results and findings will be summarized in a report and a workshop/public meeting held to disseminate method and information. Project deliverables: Increased biological monitoring on the Kinni, and routine assessment of benthic algal biomass. Establishes a prototype citizen-volunteer benthic algal biomonitoring program for streams in WI. Educates and trains staff and students at UWRF, and educates, trains, and involves the public on conservation of a locally-important and shared water resource.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
River Alliance and Friends of the Kinnickinnic River propose to collect water quality information from two small impoundments on the Kinnickinnic River and the river above, between and below the impoundments. Sampling is also proposed on the South Fork Kinnickinnic River which empties into the Kinnickinnic River between the two impoundments. Information will be collected following WISCALM guidance and will include sampling for total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature. Continuous temperature loggers will be deployed at all sites. Other funding sources will be used in addition to this grant to complete the entire project. Major project deliverables include 1) Data and reports will be shared with stakeholders and the community of River Falls 2) The final report will be submitted to the WDNR impaired waters sections for consideration and evaluation for impaired waters listing. 3) The final report will provide water quality information to City of River Falls and stakeholders to assist in developing the Kinnickinnic Corridor Planning process. 4) Develop and distribute brochures, flyers and posters to increase community engagement in the corridor planning process.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The River Alliance of Wisconsin is sponsoring a project to develop a Feasibility Study for restoration of the Kinnickinnic River through removal of a dam in the City of River Falls. Project activities and deliverables include: 1) request for proposals and firm selection, 2) coordination with regulators and stakeholders, 3) public input meeting, 4) hydrology and structural engineering review, 5) detailed project cost estimate and feasibility study, 6) aid in outreach and planning re: study results, 7) assist Friends of the Kinni in development of educational resources and community involvement, and 8) final report. This scope summarizes the project detail provided in the application and does not negate tasks/deliverables described therein. Data, records, and reports, including GIS-based maps and digital images must be submitted to the Department in a format specified by the regional Lake Planner.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Kinnickinnic River Land Trust proposes to study historical Best Management Practices (BMPs) within the Kinni River Watershed in Pierce and St. Croix Counties, evaluate them for efficacy, and provide recommendations for future BMP implementation and outreach. Major project elements to include: 1) study of historic BMPs, 2) GIS mapping, 3) establishment of project steering committee, 4)posters and powerpoint, and 5) final report.
ATTAINS Alternative Restoration Approach
The Kinnickinnic River Land Trust will purchase a conservation easement protecting 56 acres and 1.05 miles of shoreline on the Kinnickinnic River in Pierce County. Major project elements to include: 1) Easement Purchase, 2) Associated acquisition costs.
Easement/Buffer
The goal of the Edgar's Project is to protect the numerous threatened natural resources found on the farm from loss to the negative impacts of urban sprawl. The objectives include the purchase of a conservation easement, the involvement of funding partners and the use of the project as a model for the other river protection efforts by the Kinnickinnic River Land Trust and other conservation entities.
ATTAINS Alternative Restoration Approach
The goal of the Edgar's Project is to protect the numerous threatened natural resources found on the farm from loss to the negative impacts of urban sprawl. The objectives include the purchase of a conservation easement, the involvement of funding partners and the use of the project as a model for the other river protection efforts by the Kinnickinnic River Land Trust and other conservation entities.
Nine Key Element Plan
Kinnickinnic River St. Croix PWS Plan - Nine Key Element Plan - Current and planned land uses, in combination with identified pollutant management priorities, can be used to develop suitable arrays of Best Management Practices (BMPs), and a management strategy can be developed and implemented for each subwatershed or drainage area. 2601800
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
WRM should amend the River Falls Stormwater Management Plan to the St. Croix River Basin Areawide Water Quality Management Plan (Type B).
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
The City of River Falls should implement the recommendations of the stormwater management plan to protect the Kinnickinnic River downstream of the stormwater discharges in River Falls. It is critical that the recommendations of the stormwater management plan be implemented to prevent further degradation of this unique and valuable resource (Type C).
Monitor Fish Tissue
District WRM and Fisheries Management should continue to sample for fish PCB and mercury tissue analysis (Type B).

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Kinnickinnic River is located in the Kinnickinnic River watershed which is 206.08 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (47.30%), grassland (25.40%) and a mix of forest (19.40%) and other uses (7.80%). This watershed has 283.63 stream miles, 508.55 lake acres and 1,305.73 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Not Ranked for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Kinnickinnic River is considered a Cool-Cold Mainstem under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Cool (Cold-Transition) Mainstem streams are moderate-to-large but still wadeable perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are common to absent, mainstem species are abundant to common, and river species are common to absent.

Fish Stocking
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