Long Lake, Brill and Red Cedar Rivers Watershed (LC10)
Long Lake, Brill and Red Cedar Rivers Watershed (LC10)
Long Lake (2106800)
3478 Acres
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
This lake is impaired
High Phosphorus Levels, Eutrophication
Total Phosphorus
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Shallow headwater lake describes the depth and location of the lake in a watershed. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Fish and Aquatic Life - waters that do not have a specific use designation subcategory assigned but which are considered fishable, swimmable waters.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Default FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - Default Waters do not have a specific use designation subcategory but are considered fishable, swimmable waters.


Long Lake is a 3,290-acre drainage lake in southeastern Washburn County at the headwaters of the
Brill River. Ths large lake is irregularly shaped and consists of numerous bays, which sometimes
edubit different water quality characteristics. The Long Lake Preservation Association recently
formed, but has been extremely aggressive in its involvement in lake management activities. The
lake has at least five locations where water quality monitoring data would be desirable and
volunteers have been monitoring lake water clarity at these locations since 1991. Two were selected
for monitoring at the TSI level of the Self-Help Lake Monitoring Program in 1992.
The lake association was awarded a lake management planning grant in March, 1994, and extensive
water quality data and watershed information has been collected. Preliminary results indicate the
lake has high water quality, with TSI values of 42 to 48.
This hgh quality aquatic resource is classified as an outstanding resource water under the provisions
of Chapter NR 102.10 of the Wis. Adrn. Code. The lake is susceptible to any increase in
phosphorus loading and should receive a high priority for protection management

Date  1996

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Historical Description

A hard water, drainage lake on the headwaters of the Brill River. The estimated normal flow of the lake outlet is 38 cubicfeet per second. The fishery of Long Lake includes walleye, northern Pike, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, bluegill, perch, black crappie, pumpkinseed, rock bass, bullhead, cisco, white suckers, and bowfin. Long Lake is the largest lake in the county, and only four other lakes are deeper than Long Lake in Washburn County. The lake depth however is increased nine feet by the water control structure on its outlet. The structure is owned by Washburn County. As its name implies, the lake's shape is linear, but it is also U-shaped in that it has an arm extending to the northeast as well as the main lake body extending to the northwest. Several streams and other lakes contribute water flow to Long Lake and include Slim Creek, the two Twin and Devil Lakes, Mud Lake, Little Mud Lake, and a small unnamed tributary in Section 16 near Slim Creek.

Only five percent of the lake surface area is less than 3 feet deep, but 63 percent of the lake has depths of 0ver 20 feet. Long Lake lies in a steep-sided valley and much of the lakeshore slopes steeply. Five percent of the lakeshore is bordered by sedge meadow wetland and one percent has tamarack bogs. The remaining shore is mostly wooded upland. The littoral bottom is dominated by unsorted sand and gravel, with only 14 percent soft muck material along the bays and inlet streams. Twenty-six percent of the shoreline has private development on it, with 21 resorts, two boat rentals, 381 cottages and a boy scout camp. About 675 acres of wetlands border the lake. Muskrats and beaver are common to the lake, along with nesting mallards, wood ducks, teal, coot, and loon. Other migratory waterfowl numbering several thousands also use the lake in spring and fall. There are four public accesses on the lake and 19 other undeveloped platted access sites, for a total of 0.29 mile of public frontage. The four access sites are located on the north side of the "narrows", on the west side off County Highway "M" near Kunz Island, on the east shore near the scout camp, and another off the town road in section 35, midway along the west shore. All of the five islands in the lake are privately owned. Source: 1978, Surface Water Resources of Washburn County Long Lake, T37, 38N, R1O, 11W, Section Several, Surface Acres-3,289.7, Maximum Depth-74 feet, M.P.A.-86 ppm, Secchi Disk-12 feet

Date  1978

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Long Lake, Brill and Red Cedar Rivers Watershed (LC10) Fish and Aquatic LifeLong Lake, Brill and Red Cedar Rivers Watershed (LC10) RecreationLong Lake, Brill and Red Cedar Rivers Watershed (LC10) Fish Consumption

Impaired Waters

Long Lake (WBIC 2106800) was placed on the impaired waters list for total phosphorus in 2014. The 2018 assessment showed continued impairment by phosphorus; total phosphorus sample data overwhelmingly exceeded the 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use and Fish and Aquatic Life use. Chlorophyll-a sample data only exceeded the FAL use threshold. Based on the most updated information, no change in the existing impaired waters listing was needed.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Impaired Waters

Long Lake (2106800) was placed on the impaired waters list for total phosphorus in 2014. The 2016 assessments showed continued impairment by phosphorus; total phosphorus sample data overwhelmingly exceeded 2016 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use and Fish and Aquatic Life use and chlorophyll data only exceeded FAL thresholds. Based on the most updated information, the impairment of Eutrophication was added to the total phosphorus listing.

Date  2015

Author  Aaron Larson


Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.



County Land and Water Management Plan
Washburn County Highway Department is sponsoring a project to implement engineered stormwater best practices along >1000 foot portion of CTH M that is directly adjacent to Long Lake. The Project also includes developing a water quality and habitat evaluation component to collect baseline and post-construction information.
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
Water Quality Modeling
Lake Management Plan Development
The Long Lake Preservation Association (LLPA) will sponsor a project to implement recommendations contained in the Long Lake Management Plan. The project will install structural Best Management Practices (BMP's), publicize and promote the use of BMP's, educate the public on the importance of runoff management control for lake water quality.
Lake Management Plan Development
The Long Lake Preservation Association, Inc. will conduct a comprehensive planning project which will produce a comprehensive community plan for a three-town planning cluster that includes: 1. Consideration of local watershed inventories and interpreted data, 2. A process that provides for related public education and consensus building, and 3. Recommendations for specific watershed management strategies and tools tailored to the Long Lake watershed and integrated with the natural and agricultural resources element of Washburn County and related town comprehensive plans.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.


Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Long Lake is located in the Brill and Red Cedar Rivers watershed which is 297.68 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily forest (49.40%), agricultural (20.30%) and a mix of grassland (10.70%) and other uses (19.60%). This watershed has 264.90 stream miles, 6,282.34 lake acres and 15,832.05 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Medium for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Long Lake is considered a Two-Story under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Shallow headwater lake describes the depth and location of the lake in a watershed. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.

Maps of Watershed