Neenah Slough, Little Lake Butte des Morts Watershed (LF06)
Neenah Slough, Little Lake Butte des Morts Watershed (LF06)
Neenah Slough (130800)
0.77 Miles
2.77 - 3.54
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Cool-Warm Headwater
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2018
Poor
 
This river is impaired
Low DO, PCBs Contaminated Fish Tissue
PCBs, Total Phosphorus
 
Winnebago
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
No
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
Yes

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - waters that do not have a specific use designation subcategory assigned but which are considered fishable, swimmable waters.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
WWSF
Streams capable of supporting a warm waterdependent sport fishery. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require cool or warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that do not drop below 5 mg/L.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
LFF
Streams capable of supporting small populations of forage fish or tolerant macro-invertebrates that are tolerant of organic pollution. Typically limited due to naturally poor water quality or habitat deficiencies. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 3 mg/L.

Overview

Neenah Slough is a unique system in which it can be characterized as a stream, lake and marsh. Muck, silt and detritus are the major bottom materials along with some gravel, sand and debris. The slough is one of the major northern pike spawning areas adjacent to Little Lake Butte des Morts. Other fish known to be present include sucker, carp, bullhead, freshwater drum, perch and white bass. Both summer and winter fish kills have occurred. The land use near the headwaters of Neenah Slough is mainly agricultural with severe development pressures (Techlow 1998). The stream is impacted by storm sewer discharge, which carries high levels of polluted sediments. Winnebago County has worked with landowners near the headwaters of the Neenah Slough to restore wetland areas (Neu 1998). Migrating waterfowl utilize these wetlands as resting and feeding areas.

Bougie, Cheryl A. 1999. Lower Fox River Basin Water Quality Management Plan. Public Review Draft. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  1999

Author  Cheryl Bougie

Historical Description

Neenah Slough, T20N, R17E, Section 21 (14), Area = 12.0 acres, Length = 4.5 miles, Gradient = 4.0 feet/mile.
Neenah Slough is unique as it has characteristics of a stream, lake and marsh. Nearly the entire slough is lined with a mat of vegetation consisting of arrowhead, pickerel weed, and cattail. Muck, silt and detritus are major bottom materials
along with gravel, sand, debris and trash. The slough is one of the major northern pike spawning
areas adjacent to Little Lake Butte des Morts. Other fish known to be present include sucker, carp, bullhead, drum, perch and white bass. Aquatic vegetation provides most in-stream cover. The slough supports a significant population of muskrats.
Nesting mallards, blue-winged teal, and migrant puddle ducks use the area. Once a well known
hunting and fishing area, Neenah Slough has been dredged and polluted until it is no longer capable of supporting this type of recreation. Both winter and summer fishkills have occurred. Pollutants of various types enter from several paper mills, a dairy, and a foundry. Drainage and filling of adjacent marsh lands has further hastened destruction of this stream. Public access is provided by several city street crossings, one federal highway, and one county highway. Navigable water access via Litte Lake Butte des Morts is also available.

From: 1975. Surface Water Resources of Winnebago County: Lake and Stream Classification Project.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  1975

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Neenah Slough, Little Lake Butte des Morts Watershed (LF06) Fish and Aquatic LifeNeenah Slough, Little Lake Butte des Morts Watershed (LF06) RecreationNeenah Slough, Little Lake Butte des Morts Watershed (LF06) Fish Consumption

Impaired Waters

The 2018 assessments of Neenah Slough (miles 0-2.77) showed continued impairment by phosphorus; new total phosphorus sample data exceeded the 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. Available biological data did not indicate impairment (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the "poor" condition category). Based on the most updated information, no change in the existing impaired waters listing was needed.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.

Reports

Recommendations

Navigability Determination
20N 17E S33; Neenah Slough;
Navigability Determination
T20N R17E; Neenah Slough;
Navigability Determination
S31, T20N R17E ; Neenah Slough; extension of previous determin
Navigability Determination
19N 17E S7; Neenah Slough; extension of previous determin
Navigability Determination
19N 16E S13; Neenah Slough, unnamed trib; extension of previous determin
Navigability Determination
19N 17E S6; Neenah Slough; extension of previous determin
Navigability Determination
SE S11 T19N R16E; Neenah Slough ;
Navigability Determination
19N 16E S6; Neenah Slough, unnamed trib; 10/15/01 confirm nav Lancaster
Navigability Determination
19N 17E S18; Fox River, unnamed trib;
Monitor Targeted Watershed Area (TWA)
Neenah Slough and Mud Creek are highly impacted urban streams that are listed on the State's list of impaired waters for Total Phosphorous, Total Suspended Sediment, Chlorides, and PCBs. East District Biologists propose to monitor Mud Creek and Neenah Slough which will complete the assessments within the remaining two HUC 12's in the Lower Fox River Basin that have not had contemporary water quality data collected.
Monitor Fish Tissue
130800 name Neenah Slough TMDL ID 308 Start Mile 2.77 End Mile 3.54
Monitor Fish Tissue
130800 name Neenah Slough TMDL ID 308 Start Mile 0 End Mile 2.77
Monitor Fish Tissue
130800 name Neenah Slough TMDL ID 308 Start Mile 3.55 End Mile 6.12

Standards Details

This water, from the Menasha Corp. STP effluent ditch downstream to 500 feet below the HWY 41 bridge.

Date  2010

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Neenah Slough is located in the Little Lake Butte des Morts watershed which is 43.77 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily suburban (32.90%), agricultural (23%) and a mix of urban (22.50%) and other uses (21.50%). This watershed has 60.88 stream miles, 74.47 lake acres and 848.70 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Not Available for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Neenah Slough is considered a Cool-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.