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Warm Headwater, COOL-Warm Headwater
Fish and Aquatic Life
The Red River is a 9-mile, warm water stream in northwestern Kewaunee County. It is subject to low
flow and low dissolved oxygen levels during the summer, primarily due to its intermittent nature in the upper stretches. It is also affected by sediment loading and nutrient enrichment from agricultural nonpoint sources. Agricultural runoff is a major source of problems in this drainage area.
The entire stream is classified as a limited forage fishery, but WDNR personnel believe the lower quarter mile of stream might support a population of forage fishes. The upper reaches of the Red River are intermittent and are affected by nonpoint sources of water pollution.
Author Michael Toneys
Red River (101000) was placed on the impaired waters list for total phosphorus in 2014. The 2016 assessments showed continued impairment by phosphorus; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, no biological data (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores) were available to assess biological impairment. Based on the most updated information, no change in existing impaired waters listing is needed.
Author Aaron Larson
Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.
Nine Key Element Plan
Red River/Sturgeon Bay PWS Plan - Nine Key Element Plan - The Red River/Sturgeon Bay Priority Watershed Project plan assesses the nonpoint sources of pollution in the Red River/Sturgeon Bay Watershed and guides the implementation of nonpoint source control measures. These control measures are needed to meet specific water resource objectives for the Red River/Sturgeon Bay and its tributaries. The purpose of this project is to reduce the amount of pollutants originating from nonpoint sources that reach surface water and groundwater within the Red River/Sturgeon Bay Priority Watershed Project area.
Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable
Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.
Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.
Grants and Management Projects
|WBIC||Official Waterbody Name||Station ID||Station Name||Earliest Fieldwork Date||Latest Fieldwork Date||View Station||View Data|
|101000||Red River||313059||Red River at County Park||6/14/1993||9/18/2018||Map||Data|
|101000||Red River||313060||Red River at Cth A||11/17/1994||11/29/1994||Map||Data|
|101000||Red River||10010170||Red River - Highway A (Site 1)||11/17/1994||11/17/1994||Map||Data|
|101000||Red River||313021||Red River - A Sth 57 Ab County Park||3/9/1976||1/1/2015||Map||Data|
|101000||Red River||10032670||Red River at mouth||Map||Data|
Red River is located in the Red River and Sturgeon Bay watershed which is 139.16 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (38.70%), wetland (20.90%) and a mix of grassland (18.20%) and other uses (22.30%). This watershed has 149.91 stream miles, 20,800.31 lake acres and 16,378.27 wetland acres.
Nonpoint Source Characteristics
This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Not Ranked for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.
Red River is considered a Warm Headwater, COOL-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.
Warm Headwaters are small, usually intermittent streams with warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are absent, transitional fishes are common to uncommon, and warm water fishes are abundant to common. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and
river species are absent.