Yahara River, Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa Watershed (LR06)
Yahara River, Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa Watershed (LR06)
Yahara, Stoughton To L. Kegonsa (798300)
5.75 Miles
16.33 - 22.08
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Small, Macroinvertebrate, No Classification, Shallow Lowland, Warm Mainstem, COOL-Warm Headwater
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2019
Poor
 
This river is impaired
Low DO, Degraded Habitat
Total Phosphorus, Sediment/Total Suspended Solids
 
Dane
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
No
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
Yes

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
WWSF
Streams capable of supporting a warm waterdependent sport fishery. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require cool or warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that do not drop below 5 mg/L.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
WWSF
Streams capable of supporting a warm waterdependent sport fishery. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require cool or warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that do not drop below 5 mg/L.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Default FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - Default Waters do not have a specific use designation subcategory but are considered fishable, swimmable waters.

Overview

The Yahara River is a large tributary to the Rock River, draining over 1/3 of Dane County. The river is nearly 40 miles in length with 23 miles in the Yahara-Kegonsa watershed. The stretch of the Yahara River in this watershed flows from the dam at Lake Waubesa and ends at the river s confluence with the Rock River. The river is slow-moving in most areas with an average gradient of 3.6 feet/mile and a baseflow of 68.8 cfs as it passes through the largely agricultural landscape.

The section of the Yahara that flows south from Lake Kegonsa was added to the 303(d) list in 1996. The 303(d) listed waters are those waters, which have impairment that prohibit them from meeting their potential use. Environmental problems have impacted the level of flow, habitat, fish migration, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation on the Yahara River. Efforts have been made over the past 20 years to reduce non-point and point source pollution. Despite these efforts, however, the Yahara River continues to be on the 303 (d) list of impaired waters. Fishkills, usually due to low dissolved oxygen, also continue to be a problem in the Yahara River below Lake Monona.
Although there is some point source pollution to the river, the greatest water quality problem in this stretch of the Yahara is from urban and rural non-point source pollution. Urban stormwater run-off carries sediment and pollutants to area surface waters. In addition, high development pressures in the region pose the threat of increasing construction site erosion. Since the majority of Dane County s population resides within the Yahara River Valley, development pressure on the Yahara system has been and continues to be intense. As the demand for waterfront property grows in the watershed, the lower Yahara River in particular will face increasing development pressure.
Rural sources of non-point pollution come from cropland erosion, pesticides, and runoff from barnyards and cattle exercise lots. Runoff from agricultural lands carries nutrients and sediment, which harm the aquatic habitat and water quality in the watershed. Sedimentation of the river and lake beds also increases turbidity of the water and decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Overview

The Yahara River originates in the marshy areas of Columbia County and flows as a small meandering creek through extensively farmed land to where it empties into the 2,000-plus acre Cherokee Marsh, and eventually Lake Mendota. Wetlands along this headwater stretch have been extensively drained, while small feeder streams have been straightened. The loss of wetlands combined with heavy agriculture in this reach have resulted in large sediment and nutrient loads and loss of valuable fish habitat. Heavy fertilizer use, poor animal waste management practices, and silage holding problems have reduced the river's water quality. A DCRPC report says the Yahara River carries the largest total mass of nutrients and sediments to Lake Mendota of the lake's five tributaries. Despite these loadings, the stream exhibits fair water quality and supports a good warm water sport fishery, as far upstream as DeForest. A monitoring station was reestablished on the Yahara River near Lake Windsor where flows were monitored from 1976 to 1980 and since 1989 and 1990 for monitoring for sediment, flow and phosphorus has continued. Development in DeForest and Windsor threatens water quality, in-stream habitat and fisheries of the Yahara River if adequate erosion control measures and post-development stormwater management are not established and maintained.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is conducting floodplain studies in Dane County along Koshkonong Creek downstream of Sun Prairie and upstream of DeForest on the Yahara River. The possibility exists for similar work on Token Creek. Initial products include a digitized map of all floodplains in Dane County, to be incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) database, and storm water quantity planning for a portion of Sun Prairie.

Rock River Water Quality Management Plan, Lower Rock River Appendix. WT-668-2002. South Central Region, WDNR.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Overview

The Yahara River serves as relatively short connecting channel between lakes in this watershed. The segment between Lake Mendota and Lake Monona is adversely affected by sediments, debris and nutrients from Madison streets, parking lots and yards washing into the river and eventually to Lake Monona. As a “channel,” this segment receives tremendous boating pressure. Between Lake Monona and Upper Mud Lake, the Yahara has many of the same pollutant sources and exhibits the same poor water quality as in the Mendota-Monona segment.Rock River Water Quality Management Plan, Lower Rock River Appendix. WT-668-2002. South Central Region, WDNR.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Overview

Stoughton has the only wastewater treatment plant that discharges directly to the Yahara River. Other point sources discharges include runoff from the railroad yards which is contaminated with oil, sulfur, and chloride; noncontact industrial cooling waters; and city swimming pool outflow.
Hydrologic modification to surface waters also negatively impacts water quality. The Yahara River has undergone only limited channelization projects, but its flow has been interrupted at many points by dams and locks built for navigation. Four dams occur on this reach of the river: at Lake Kegonsa’s outlet, Stoughton, Dunkirk and Stebbinsville. A fifth dam at Fulton has been removed. Hydrologic modifications, such as dams, can impair water quality by slowing flow, acting as sediment and nutrient collection basins, impeding fish movement, warming waters in the impoundment and, consequently, warming waters downstream.
Groundwater inputs are reduced and flows decline during dry periods due to the heavy pumping demands placed on the aquifer by the City of Madison and the diversion of sewage effluent around the Yahara lakes into Badfish Creek. The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) began diverting flow around the Yahara Lakes in 1958. MMSD now provides advanced treatment and the current statutes would allow the DNR to evaluate a proposal to return the discharge to the upper lakes. See Surface Water Quality Issues for a more detailed discussion. Due to its proximity to ½ million people, the Yahara is heavily used for recreational purposes. The many parks along the Yahara River and the Stoughton lakeshores provide easy public access for hunting, fishing, canoeing and other recreation. In addition to its use for human activities, significant tracts of wetlands are particularly productive for waterfowl, especially the wetlands that lie between Lake Kegonsa and Stoughton.
The river also supports a diverse warm water sport fishery of approximately forty-eight species, containing most of the species common to the Madison lakes. Some areas of the river provide a rocky gravel substrate and good flow, making it an important spawning area for white bass and walleye. Crappie, sucker and northern pike also spawn in the river to some extent. Commonly found species include: northern pike, central stoneroller, common carp, golden, emerald, common and spottail shiner, bluntnose and fathead minnow, creek chub, buffalo (unsp.) white sucker, black, yellow, and brown bullheads, brook silverside, brook stickleback, white bass, pumpkinseed, bluegill, largemouth bass, white and black crappie, johnny darter, yellow perch, walleye, and mottled sculpin.

Rock River Water Quality Management Plan, Lower Rock River Appendix. WT-668-2002. South Central Region, WDNR.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Historical Description

Yahara River -T5N, R11E, Sec. 35, Surface acres = 129, Length = 40 miles, Stream order = III, Gradient = 3.6 ft/mile,
Base discharge = 68.8 cfs.
The Yahara River is a large tributary to the Rock River which drains over 1/3 of Dane County. It originates in ColumbIa County and flows south, joining the Rock River in Rock County. It connects the county's four largest lakes--Mendota, Monona, Kegonsa, and Waubesa--whlch provide a wide range of recreational activities for a large percentage of the population of Dane County. Since the majority of the county's population resides within the Yahara River Valley, development pressure on the Yahara system has been and continues to be intense. Although large acreages of wetlands have been filled, drained or dredged, the Yahara Valley still encompasses some of the largest wetlands in the county due to their undrainable nature (Dane Cty. Reg. Plann. Comm. 1979a). The Yahara River has undergone only limited channelization projects, but its flow has been interrupted at many points by dams and locks built for flood control and navigation. Ground water inputs are reduced and flows decline during dry periods due to the heavy demands placed on the aquifer by the City of Madison and the passing of sewage effluent of the metropolitan area around the Madison lakes and into Badfish Creek.
In addition to these physical alterations of the river and its wetlands, municipal, industrial, and agricultural pollution have greatly affected the Yahara River. Prior to the 1950's all Madison area sewage effluent, usually treated but still high in nutrients, was discharged to the Madison lakes and the river. Currently all wastes are treated as efficiently as possible and are diverted around the lakes via Badfish Creek. Stoughton and Cottage Grove have the only treatment plants that discharge directly to the Yahara River. The only other point sources still remaining are runoff from the railroad yards which is polluted with oil, sulfur, and chloride; noncontact industrial cooling waters; and city swimming pool outflow (Dane Cty. Reg. Plann. Comm. 1979a). Nonpoint sources of pollution are runoff from agricultural and metropolitan areas and bank eroslon. The Yahara River is moderately fertile and only slightly alkaline, but chloride levels are quite high. Despite the reduction in pollution sources in the past 20 years, fishkills usually due to low dissolved oxygen have been a problem in the Yahara River, most often below Lake Monona.
The fishery is quite diverse, containing most of the species common to the Madison lakes along with occasional brown trout in the upper reaches. The river is also an important spawning area for white bass and walleye. There are many parks along the Yahara and the Madison lake shores, making public access very good. The Cherokee Marsh Fishery Area located north of Lake Mendota provides waterfowl, deer, pheasant, rabbit, and squirrel hunting. Muskrat and mink also inhabit the area.
Fish species: American eel, brown trout, northern pIke, central stoneroller, common carp, golden, emerald, common, and spot tail shiner, bluntnose and fathead minnow, creek chub, buffalo (unsp.), white sucker, black, yellow, and brown bullhead, brook sllverslde, brook stickleback, white bass, crappie (unsp.), pumpkinseed, blueglll, largemouth bass, white and black crappie, johnny darter, yellow perch, walleye, and mottled sculpin.

From: Day, Elizabeth A.; Grzebieniak, Gayle P.; Osterby, Kurt M.; and Brynildson, Clifford L., 1985. Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of Dane County, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  1985

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Historical Description

Surface Acres = 105.6, Miles = 8.5, Gradient = 4.7 feet per mile.

A large, sluggish river entering Rock County near Stebbinsville, then flowing southeast to enter the Rock River south of Indianford. Two dams are located on the stream in Rock County. The Fulton Dam forms Fulton Pond at Fulton and the other dam is at Stebbinsville. Both dams have a 14-foot head and are maintained for recreational purposes. The sport fishery is composed of black crappies, white bass, northern pike, bullheads and channel catfish. A high population of carp plus other warm water rough and forage species is also present. Pollution and excessive fertility are management problems. The Yahara River receives effluent from Stoughton; and Badfish Creek, which receives effluent from Madison and Oregon, enters the Yahara above Fulton Pond. According to a 1960 report by the Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution, the effluent added to Badfish Creek had a marked effect on water quality of the Yahara River. Fertilizing nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) were greatly increased, which in turn, intensified algae blooms and made conditions more favorable for rough fish. Adjoining fresh meadow and timbered swamp lands totals 296 acres. The river and wetlands attract fair numbers of migrating waterfowl. Squirrels, deer and raccoon are also abundant in the unpopulated areas of the river bottom. The Yahara River also offers outstanding recreational opportunities for wildlife observation and canoeing. There is only one
boat launching ramp (located at Fulton Pond), but it is possible to launch canoes and small boats from one state highway and four town road crossings.

From: Ball, Joseph R., and Ronald J. Poff, Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of Rock County, Department of Natural Resources, 1970.

Date  1970

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Yahara River, Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa Watershed (LR06) Fish and Aquatic LifeYahara River, Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa Watershed (LR06) RecreationYahara River, Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa Watershed (LR06) Fish Consumption

Impaired Waters

The 2018 assessments of the Yahara River (miles 42.71-47.11, Lake Monona to confluence with Token Creek) showed continued impairment by phosphorus; new total phosphorus sample data exceeded the 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. However, no biological data (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores) were available to assess biological impairment. Based on the most updated information, no change in the existing impaired waters listing was needed.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Impaired Waters

Yahara River, the segment from Token Creek to headwaters, was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, no biological data (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores) were available to assess biological impairment). This water was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle and chloride sample data exceeded 2016 WisCALM chronic listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. Yahara River, the segment from Lake Monona to confluence with Token Creek, was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, no biological data (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores) were available to assess biological impairment).

Date  2015

Author  Aaron Larson

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.

Reports

Recommendations

Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Information and Education
To reduce the incidence of beach- related illness, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services seeks to increase the accessibility and availability of data and information on microbial beach hazards and to improve public awareness of these hazards. New web content on beach and surface water quality parameters such as coliform bacteria, lake algae (Cladophora), and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) will be created. A range of outreach activities will be conducted, and new outreach materials such as brochures and press releases will be developed. The project will be guided by a comprehensive beach quality program evaluation plan.
Lakes Planning Grant
Project Deliverable
A final report with recommendations for restoration of Cherokee Lake will be produced and shared widely.
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
ATTAINS Implementation Initiated
Dane County proposes to acquire approximately 110 acres of land as an addition to Cherokee Marsh for low impact recreational opportunities and lake protection.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Friends of the Yahara River Headwaters, Inc. will sponsor a project to create a volunteer water quality monitoring program focused on the Yahara River and its tributaries where they flow through the Village of DeForest. Project deliverables include: 1.) establish a program to obtain Level 1 & 2 quality water quality data using basic and advanced monitoring equipment, 2) increase sampling intensity and frequency over current levels of WDNR & CARPC monitoring, 3) increase the membership of FYRH through public presentations and workshops of water quality monitoring and recruitment of volunteer water quality monitors, 4) provide the names of ten new members in FYRH and the names of four new monitoring volunteers, 5) foster future watershed stewards by providing a local high school class the opportunity to incorporate water quality monitoring into its curriculum. , 6) provide one monitoring training session agenda with date and location and attendance list, 7) provide two public meeting attendance lists with date and location, 8) provide an electronic copy or weblink to monthly sampling data for nine Level 1 and 2 parameters, 9) provide an electronic copy, weblink or photos of Watershed and river channel maps, 10) provide an electronic copy of data provided to Deforest Public Works and DNR.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Dane County Office of Lakes and Watersheds will sponsor a project involving the UW Water Resource Management graduate class. This class will assist in the assessment and modeling of sediment and phosphorus in the Yahara River and its tributaries. Additionally, this class will also identify and design the most promising strategies for reducing these pollutants. Project deliverables will include a final report and public presentation of the findings.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
Gathering Waters, Inc. will sponsor a project to create a website involving the Yahara Watershed, Dane County. As part of this visioning process, an internet site will be developed to educate and inform the public of water issues specific to the Yahara River watershed. Deliverables include: 1) creation of a basin-wide website, Facebook Page, and YouTube materials; 2) at least one MP3 download and 1 powerpoint; 3) gather/poll/survey information and views from the public on water issues (to include bilingual polling/survey capabilities); and 4) partner with other Friends groups and entities to facilitate more comprehensive planning.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Friends of Cherokee Marsh, Inc.,will sponsor a project involving Cherokee Marsh, Dane County. The goal of this project is to strengthen and expand membership of this group in order to more effectively protect, preserve, and restore the beauty, value and health of the Cherokee Marsh and Upper Yahara river watershed. Project deliverables include: 1) obtain federal 501(c)(3) status; 2) design and print brochures; 3) educate the public with the issuance of informational pieces in the neighborhood newspaper; and 4) work with Natural Heritage Land Trust and hold a strategic planning session.
Dam Safety or Removal
River Alliance of Wisconsin is sponsoring a project to remove the Stebbinsville Dam on the Yahara River in Rock County. The removal of the Stebbinsville Dam and its impoundment will promote further fish migration and further the Yahara River's improvement as an aquatic riverine habitat. Removal of the dam will allow the river channel to return to its natural flow and course. This project will also include activities to stabilize, restore, and enahnce habitat.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The primary goals and objectives of this project are to use the resources obtained through this grant in a concurrent effort to educate, raise awareness and energize activists in the DeForest community so as to be ready to partner with other public units to attack the problems facing the Yahara River, and at the same time, enhance its public benefits.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
Stoughton is proposing to improve its river environment, promote recreational and business activities on and along the river, and improve the communities' understanding of the economic value of the Yahara River. The primary goals and objectives of the river planning project will be to define demographic characteristics of the public users of the City's waterfront areas and ecologically sensitive improvements to these areas that promote use and also provide economic advantages for the City and its waterfront businesses. Another goal is to create a coordinated approach to protecting the river using existing river organizations.
ATTAINS Water Identified for Protection
The Village of DeForest will address the problem of erosion of Yahara River Streambank by hiring a consultant to assist with restoring the river's streambanks, creating a buffer zone throughout the river corridor, creating an ordinance to protect the buffer zone and river quality, and developing informational brochures to be distributed to the public regarding the Yahara River.
TMDL Implementation
The Rock River TMDL was approved by US EPA on September 28, 2011. Implementation planning is ongoing and sector teams are forming to address guidance and policy issues.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Yahara River is located in the Yahara River and Lake Kegonsa watershed which is 126.33 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (54.90%), grassland (10.70%) and a mix of wetland (10.30%) and other uses (24.20%). This watershed has 145.73 stream miles, 3,600.04 lake acres and 6,832.19 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Low for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Yahara, Stoughton To L. Kegonsa is considered a Small, Macroinvertebrate, No Classification, Shallow Lowland, Warm Mainstem, COOL-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Warm Mainstem waters are moderate-to-large but still wadeable perennial streams with relatively warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are absent, transitional fishes are common to uncommon, and warm water fishes are abundant to common. Headwater species are common to absent, mainstem species are abundant to common, and river species are common to absent.

Small lake describes the size of small isolated waters. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.

Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.

Shallow lowland lake describes the depth and location of the lake in a watershed. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.

Fish Stocking