Neshonoc Lake, Lower La Crosse River,Little La Crosse River Watershed (BL04, BL05)
Neshonoc Lake, Lower La Crosse River,Little La Crosse River Watershed (BL04, BL05)
Neshonoc Lake (1653500)
606.50 Acres
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Impounded Flowing Water
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2019
Poor
 
This impoundment is impaired
Eutrophication, Mercury Contaminated Fish Tissue, Excess Algal Growth, Elevated pH
PCBs, Total Phosphorus, Sediment/Total Suspended Solids, Mercury
 
La Crosse
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
No
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
Yes

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Impounded Flowing Water
This classification includes waterbodies created by dams (mill ponds, reservoirs, flowages, and other impoundments) with a residence time of 14 days or more (under summer (June – Sept) mean low flow conditions with a 1 in 10 year recurrence interval (US EPA 2000)). Many natural lakes also have dams or water level control structures. However, to be included in the Impounded Flowing Waters category, the dam or water level control structure, must account for more than half of a waterbody’s maximum depth. Impoundments with a residence time of less than 14 days should be covered under the rivers and stream assessment methodology process.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
WWSF
Streams capable of supporting a warm waterdependent sport fishery. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require cool or warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that do not drop below 5 mg/L.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Default FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - Default Waters do not have a specific use designation subcategory but are considered fishable, swimmable waters.

Overview

All of the Little La Crosse River Watershed ultimately drains to Lake Neshonoc via the La Crosse River. High bacterial counts, nuisance algal blooms, and sedimentation of the lake are all due to the runoff of soil, nutrients, and bacteria from the land in this watershed and the Upper La Crosse River Watershed above Perch Lake. The La Crosse County Health Department has closed the Lake Neshonoc swimming beaches on a regular basis due to harmful bacteria levels. Additionally, sediment is currently being dredged from Lake Neshonoc at great expense. See additional discussion of Lake Neshonoc on page 102 of this report.

Date  2011

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Historical Description

Source: 1971, Surface Water Resources of LaCrosse County Neshonoc Lake, T17N, R6W, S26, 27, 34, 35, 36 Surface Acres = 6.87.2, S.D.F.-3.20, Maximum Depth = 11 feet.

This drainage impoundment is located on the LaCrosse River and has medium hard, alkaline water. At the time of investigation, the water was turbid and had a low transparency. The dam has a height of 14 feet and has been acquired by the county from the Northern States Power Company. Northern pike, largemouth bass, channel catfish, bluegill, black crappie, white crappie, pumpkinseed, and bullhead are the primary sport fish species, with bluegill and crappie dominating. Carp are abundant and a problem. The turbidity of the lake is mainly due to this species. An attempt was made to reduce the carp population in 1962 through drawdown and mechanical carp removal by commercial fishermen. Any benefits that may have resulted from that operation proved temporary. Pollutants, including silt, fertilizer, and sewage materials enter the impoundment. The public swimming area has been closed on occasion by public health officials because of dangerously high cloriform counts. Developments include 16 dwellings, one resort, one private campground, and a public park. The latter is a multiple use area that includes a boat launch with parking, picnic area, and a public swimming area. Access is possible from the park and other county-owned land, and from the LaCrosse River. Beaver are present and muskrat are significant. Broods of mallards, teal, and wood ducks may be seen on the lake and puddle and diving ducks, coot, and Canada geese use the flowage during migrations.

Date  1971

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Neshonoc Lake, Lower La Crosse River,Little La Crosse River Watershed (BL04, BL05) Fish and Aquatic LifeNeshonoc Lake, Lower La Crosse River,Little La Crosse River Watershed (BL04, BL05) RecreationNeshonoc Lake, Lower La Crosse River,Little La Crosse River Watershed (BL04, BL05) Fish Consumption

Impaired Waters

Neshonoc Lake (1653500) was placed on the impaired waters list in 1998 for Mercury, sediment/total suspended solids, and total phosphorus. The 2018 assessments showed continued impairment by phosphorus; new total phosphorus sample data exceeded 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use and Fish and Aquatic Life use. Chlorophyll data only exceeded REC thresholds, but no criteria was available for the FAL use threshold. Based on the most updated information, the impairment of excess algal growth was added.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Impaired Waters

Neshonoc Lake (1653500) was placed on the impaired waters list in 1998 for Mercury, sediment/total suspended solids, and total phosphorus. The 2016 assessments showed continued impairment by phosphorus; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use and Fish and Aquatic Life use. Based on the most updated information, no change in existing impaired waters listing is needed.

Date  2015

Author  Aaron Larson

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.

Reports

Recommendations

Monitor or Propose 303(d) Listing
La Crosse proposes to monitor one lake (impoundment) in 2012 that is currently on the 303d list. Data collection will include collecting Total Phosphorus (TP) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) samples and documenting the vertical dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles. The monitoring activites are proposed for Lake Neshonoc located in La Crosse County.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Neshonoc Lake is located in the Lower La Crosse River watershed which is 145.46 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily forest (42.30%), agricultural (14.80%) and a mix of urban (10.30%) and other uses (32.50%). This watershed has 295.20 stream miles, 1,187.12 lake acres and 5,641.64 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Not Ranked for runoff impacts on lakes and Low for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of Low. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.This water is ranked High Lake for individual Impoundments based on runoff problems and the likelihood of success from project implementation.

Natural Community

Neshonoc Lake is considered a Impounded Flowing Water under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

This classification includes waterbodies created by dams (mill ponds, reservoirs, flowages, and other impoundments) with a residence time of 14 days or more (under summer (June – Sept) mean low flow conditions with a 1 in 10 year recurrence interval (US EPA 2000)). Many natural lakes also have dams or water level control structures. However, to be included in the Impounded Flowing Waters category, the dam or water level control structure, must account for more than half of a waterbody’s maximum depth. Impoundments with a residence time of less than 14 days should be covered under the rivers and stream assessment methodology process.

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