Gill Creek, Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River Watershed (SP13)
Gill Creek, Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River Watershed (SP13)
Gill Creek (885200)
5.67 Miles
0 - 5.67
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin Natural Communities.
Coldwater, Cool-Cold Headwater, Cool-Warm Headwater
Year Last Monitored
This is the most recent date of monitoring data stored in SWIMS. Additional surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Fish and Aquatic Life - waters that do not have a specific use designation subcategory assigned but which are considered fishable, swimmable waters.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Streams capable of supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Default FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - Default Waters do not have a specific use designation subcategory but are considered fishable, swimmable waters.


This 5-mile creek has been managed as a warm water forage fishery, but naturally reproducing populations of brook trout have been found in the stream (Marshall 1990). It is classified as an ERW and fisheries management is considering reclassifying the stream as a cold water fishery. Non-point source pollution continues to impact the habitat. A Department of Transportation project to rebuild a washed out bridge will result in habitat modification in the lower portion of the stream (Bush pers. comm.) which road? The stream has not been monitored in recent years.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Historical Description

Bush, D.M., R. Cornelius, D. Engle, and C.L. Brynildson. 1980. Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of Green County, 2nd Edition. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.
This small stream originates from a spring in Section 9, flows southwest and merges with the Sugar River above Attica. Its watershed is a flat-bottomed agricultural valley bounded by moderately steep wooded slopes. Two- thirds of a mile in the Sugar River bottomland has been ditched, while the upper portions meander through
pasture and experience considerable bank erosion. Existing bank cover is primarily herbaceous, although small trees and shrubs are taking over in the lower sections. The water is generally clear and the bottom is sandy with very few riffles. Instream cover is minimal except for a small stretch of habitat improvement in Section 19.
The fishery consists of forage species and is dominated by white suckers, although a few brook trout have been caught. A small wetland area remains near Highway 92 at the site of a little impoundment which has been washed out. Wildlife is limited to a few muskrats in the lower end of the stream, and public access consists of five road crossings.
Fish Species: Brook trout. stoneroller unspecified. hornyhead chub. common shiner. bluntnose minnow. fathead minnow. blackside dace. creek chub. white sucker. brook stickleback. fantail darter. Johnny darter

Surface Acres = 2.5, Length = 4.1 Miles, Gradient = 17 ft./mi., Base Discharge = 2.7 cu. ft./sec

Date  1980

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Historical Description

Flows southwesterly into the Sugar River. Impounded (less than one acre known as Patterson Pond) just north of highway 92 in section 9. Managed for forage fish. Common white suckers and brown and black bullheads are found near the mouth of the stream. The impoundment has created a small wetland above the highway and several other small wetlands lie adjacent to the stream further downstream.
Surface Acres= 2.5, Miles=4.1, Gradient= 17.1' per mile

Date  1961

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Gill Creek, Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River Watershed (SP13) Fish and Aquatic LifeGill Creek, Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River Watershed (SP13) RecreationGill Creek, Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River Watershed (SP13) Fish Consumption


Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.



Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.


Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Gill Creek is located in the Allen Creek and Middle Sugar River watershed which is 154.01 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (61.50%), grassland (17.30%) and a mix of forest (9.30%) and other uses (11.80%). This watershed has 263.25 stream miles, 96.10 lake acres and 5,963.23 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Not Ranked for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.This water is ranked High Stream for individual Rivers based on runoff problems and the likelihood of success from project implementation.

Natural Community

Gill Creek is considered a Coldwater, Cool-Cold Headwater, Cool-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.

Cool (Cold-Transition) Headwaters are small, usually perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon (<10 per 100 m), transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.

More Interactive Maps