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Cool-Cold Headwater, Macroinvertebrate, Cool-Warm Headwater
High Phosphorus Levels
Fish and Aquatic Life
Very little information is available with which to classify or determine use problems in South Squaw Creek. A family biotic index sample collected in 1990 showed very good water quality. Animal waste run-off may be impacting water quality. More monitoring data is needed.
Author Aquatic Biologist
South Squaw Creek - Very little information is available with which to classify or determine use problems in South Squaw Creek. A family biotic index sample collected in 1990 showed very good water quality. Animal waste run-off may be impacting water quality. More monitoring data is needed.
Kreitlow, James D. 1991. Upper Wisconsin River Central Sub-Basin Water Quality Management Plan. PUBL-WR-287-91-REV. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.
Author Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin
South Squaw Creek was recently evaluated during the ten-year period of 2009 through 2018 for results that were reported to the USEPA for the 2020 Clean Water Act condition report. The waterbody is considered impaired, or in poor condition for designated uses which include the quality of fish and aquatic life, recreational use, and public health and welfare (fish consumption and related). Pollutants or problems encountered during sampling (impairments) are determined based on water quality standards outlined in Wisconsin 2020 Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology (WisCALM). Assessment results show water conditions that are potentially harmful for Aquatic Life use due to values for total phosphorus that fall into the range expected for an aquatic community in poor health, therefore this water is listed as impaired. This water is part of the Wisconsin River Basin TMDL, which was approved by the USEPA in 2019.
Assessment results during the 2020 listing cycle show new impairment by total phosphorus. Levels were found to be overwhelmingly high for healthy aquatic communities (plants, bugs, fish, etc.) based on 2020 WisCALM standards. Based on the most updated information, this water was proposed for the impaired waters list in 2020.
Author Ashley Beranek
Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available. Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2018. See also the 'monitoring and projects' tab.
Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable
Management goals can include creation or implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load analysis, a Nine Key Element Plan, or other restoration work, education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below online.
Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.
Grants and Management Projects
|Project Name (Click for Details)||Year Started|
|WBIC||Official Waterbody Name||Station ID||Station Name||Earliest Fieldwork Date||Latest Fieldwork Date||View Station||View Data|
|1420500||South Squaw Creek||10016277||South Squaw Creek - Under Hwy Y Bridge And Upstream 100 Feet||5/14/1998||5/14/1998||Map||Data|
|1420500||South Squaw Creek||723126||S Squaw Creek at Rock Inn Road||Map||Data|
|1420500||South Squaw Creek||10037083||South Squaw Creek at Pleasant Hill Road||5/8/2012||10/30/2017||Map||Data|
South Squaw Creek is located in the Little Eau Pleine River watershed which is 263.30 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (39%), wetland (23%) and a mix of forest (18%) and other uses (20.00%). This watershed has stream miles, lake acres and 38,285.37 wetland acres.
Nonpoint Source Characteristics
This watershed is ranked Low for runoff impacts on streams, Low for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.
South Squaw Creek is considered a Cool-Cold Headwater, Macroinvertebrate, Cool-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model resultsand DNR staff valiation processes that confirm or update predicted conditions based on flow and temperature modeling from historic and current landscape features and related variables. Predicated flow and temperatures for waters are associated predicated fish assemblages (communities). Biologists evaluate the model results against current survey data to determine if the modeled results are corect and whether biological indicators show water quaity degradation. This analysis is a core component of the state's resource management framework. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.
Cool (Cold-Transition) Headwaters are small, usually perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon (<10 per 100 m), transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.