East Twin River Targeted Watershed Assessment, Kewaunee County

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess overall conditions and identify areas of management in the East Twin River Watershed, focusing on the East Twin River and Unnamed Tributaries to the River as well as Krok Creek in Kewaunee County. In 2016, the Kewaunee County Board of Supervisors passed a resolution requesting DNR monitor this area, which is included in the Northeast Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) analysis and which hosts impaired waters with chlorides, ammonia, and chromium levels, including total phosphorus. The project results provide a contemporary status and insight into changes in water quality, habitat, and the biological communities in the watershed’s upper reaches. The NE TMDL webpage provides more information.
The following are key deliverables from this study: • Streams in the watershed were monitored to understand their status. • Presence and sources of impairments were identified. • Monitoring priorities for future watershed work were identified. • Management recommendations were developed. • A presentation to the Kewaunee County Board of Supervisors on the condition.
Read the Online Report.

Objective

This targeted watershed assessment is designed to sample streams that may be impaired. The TWA provides a full suite of analyses including biological data, chemistry, and habitat data for site specific determinations of conditions as well as contemporary perspective to compare with previous monitoring conducted in 2011.

Outcome

This project will result in a report describing assessments for the upper reaches of the East Twin River Watershed. Read the Online Report. Recommendations
This study was designed to create an updated assessment of the overall conditions of the East Twin River Watershed, including assessments of the condition of three Unnamed Tributaries (UNTs), the East Twin River and Krok Creek for ecological impairment. Assessment data from 2017 were compared to prior surveys to determine if water quality conditions have changed and if streams are meeting water quality standards. This information was shared with county experts to provide management recommendations for local activities including grants. The following are conclusions and recommendations from the 2017 assessment report:
All stream locations assessed exceed water quality criteria for phosphorus and should remain on the 303(d) impaired waters list.
Chloride, ammonia, and chromium levels in the streams are below impaired thresholds.
Water temperature in UNT 3000213 exceed water quality standards and should remain on the impaired waters list.
Ambient chronic toxicity was observed in UNT 3000213 on two occasions in 2017 (July and October). Chronic toxicity was observed on the East Twin River below the confluence with the UNT 3000211 (Station ID 104445) in June but is likely unrelated to UNT 3000213 since no toxicity was found in UNT 3000211 in June.
Macroinvertebrate monitoring confirmed fair to good water quality conditions in the East Twin River and UNTs with a slight improvement over the 2011 assessment.
Qualitative habitat assessments found mostly good to fair fish and aquatic life habitat available in Krok Creek, the East Twin River and all three UNTs.
Watershed-wide non-point sources of nutrient and sediment contributions likely impact the water quality and aquatic life habitat in Krok Creek, the East Twin River and all three UNTs and should be controlled to the extent possible.
The overall fish community in the Upper East Twin River watershed is in good to excellent condition.
The natural community of the East Twin River at CTH J (Station ID 10008204) should be updated to reflect the current fish community structure of cool-warm headwater.
• The natural community of the East Twin River at Krok Road bridge (Station ID 10020812) should be updated to reflect the current fish community structure of cool-cold headwater.
• The natural community of the UNT 3000211 at Sleepy Hollow Road (Station ID 10029040) should be updated to reflect the current fish community structure of cool-warm headwater.

Study Design

The upper reaches of the East Twin River, Unnamed Tributaries, and Krok Creek will be monitored at a total of 13 locations. Parameters include habitat assessments, aquatic toxicity (WET), continuous water temperature, invertebrates, water chemistry grab samples, and possibly fish surveys. Habitat assessments will be conducted at all 13 locations one time in the summer of 2017. Aquatic toxicity samples will be collected at 5 locations at the same time the water chemistry samples are collected. Continuous temperature monitors (HOBO's) will be installed at 6 sites for the entire 2017 summer. Macroinvertebrates will be collected at 9 locations in the fall of 2017. Water samples will be collected for chloride, total phosphorus, and ammonia monthly May through October at 8 sites. Fish surveys may be conducted by the Fisheries program staff. All data will be entered into the appropriate databases by December 31, 2018. Final report will be complete by December 31, 2018.

Related Reports

Run Project Summary Report
View Umbrella-Projects
View Related-Projects

Targeted Watershed Approach
Evaluation (TP SSC, Stressor, Bioassess)
East_TWA_2_2017
2017
Complete
 
Reports and Documents
Final report of Upper East Twin River Watershed Assessment , TWA/WQ Plan Water Quality Surveys of the East Twin River (84000) and Unnamed Tributaries (3000211, 3000212, & 3000213) to the East Twin River, and Krok Creek (86700), Kewaunee County
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2017 Natural Community Validation for East Twin River at CTH J
Natural Community Validation for East Twin River at Krok Road Bridge Station ID 10020812
Natural Community Validation Unnamed Tributary to East Twin River at Sleepy Hollow Road Station ID 10029040
 
Activities & Recommendations
Monitor or Propose 303(d) Listing
This project is designed to updated assessments for the upper reaches of the East Twin River (WBIC 84000), three Unnamed Tributaries to the East Twin River (WBIC 3000211, 3000212, 3000213), and Krok Creek to determine impairments and the current overall stream health.
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
This targeted watershed assessment is designed to sample streams that may be impaired. The TWA provides a full suite of analyses including biological data, chemistry, and habitat data for site specific determinations of conditions as well as contemporary perspective to compare with previous monitoring conducted in 2011.
Biomonitoring Toxicity Tests
Monitor Targeted Watershed Area (TWA)
This project is designed to updated assessments for the upper reaches of the East Twin River (WBIC 84000), three Unnamed Tributaries to the East Twin River (WBIC 3000211, 3000212, 3000213), and Krok Creek to determine impairments and the current overall stream health.