Large Scale Lake Planning
Upper Red Lake, Shawano County, Wisconsin, is an impoundment created by construction of a hydroelectric dam on the Red River in 1880. Impoundments, compared to natural lakes, drain relatively large watersheds, have relatively low residence times (exhibit periodic flushing), have extensive shelf areas and are continually affected by flow conditions of the parent river. The Red River drains a primarily forested watershed, and Upper Red Lake, therefore, is subject to lower potential sediment and nutrient inflow than it would be in an agricultural watershed. Upper Red Lake water quality is generally good with minimal sedimentation in the main river channel. Extensive shallow shelf areas (as related to original basin morphometry and long-term sediment deposition) are silt covered and support abundant macrophyte growth. Rain event samples suggest substantial sediment and nutrient inputs from the immediate area. Management objectives should emphasize enhancement of aesthetic and recreational potential and minimization of the comparatively high "aging" potential (relative to sediment and nutrient input) of impounded ecosystems. Common-sense riparian landowner applications and control of agricultural runoff should be implemented in areas adjacent to the lake to maintain or enhance good existing water quality. Near-term macrophyte control should be localized applications of different methods with emphasis on improvement of accessibility and fishery habitat enhancement; these procedural alternatives should be closely evaluated relative to long-term implications regarding cost-effectiveness and potential negative effects including competitive advantages of nuisance or exotic plants. Specific near-term recommendations for Upper Red Lake are: - Riparian landowner diligence relative to septic system upkeep, yard practices and creation of buffer strips - Identification and control of non-point sources of nutrients and sediment entering the lake, emphasis should be given to adjacent agricultural areas - Localized application of macrophyte harvest alternatives to create access lanes and "edge effect" - Follow-up evaluation of macrophyte control areas with respect to cost-effectiveness (time or cost/area), time frame efficiency (duration of effect) and potential of invasion of cut areas by nuisance or exotic species
Assemble and review existing data on the lake and watershed. Define data gaps from the above and agter additional data to include: a) water quality sampling at 3 sites for all or some of the parameters in table 1 of the allpication, b) sediment sample tobe analyzed for % organics, total solids, total-P, ammonia N, Kjeldahl N. Develop and implement public involvement program. Prepare land use map for lake and watershed. Identify and evaluate existing ordinances related to non-point pollution control.Develop draft report for public review and comment. Prepare and distribute lake management plan. Information will be disseminated through newsletter mailings, fact sheet distributions, public meetings, local newspaper articles, TV/radio spots(if possible). Project results will be reposited at: Town Halls (Herman and Red Springs), Village Hall (Gresham) and County Courthouse (Shawano).
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
Data analysis, report production
Watershed Mapping or Assessment
Lake Management Plan Development