Impaired Water - Plum Creek (Plum Creek)
Brown County, Wisconsin
LF03
125100
0.00 - 13.86
13.86
Water is impaired due to one or more pollutants and associated quality impacts.
Notes
Plum Creek was originally listed as impaired in 1998 due to elevated temperature and degraded habitat impairments caused by sediment/TSS. Total phosphorus was added as a pollutant to the degraded habitat impairment listing in 2008. This water is part of the Lower Fox River TP & TSS TMDL that was approved by the EPA in 2012.

Evaluations every two-year cycle from 2012 to 2022 confirmed the phosphorus impairment.
Listing Details
Pollutant
Total Phosphorus
Listed For
Fish and Aquatic Life
Impairments
Degraded Biological Community, Degraded Habitat
Current Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
Listing Status
TMDL Approved
Attainable Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
Priority
Not Applicable
Designated Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
303(d) ID
368
Listing Date
4/1/2008
Impaired Water Notes
Aquatic life habitat of Plum Creek and its tributaries is generally poor. Clay is the predominant substrate type with little gravel, rubble and sand present. Many of the pools that are necessary to support fish and other aquatic life have been filled in from bank erosion and upland sediment runoff. The streambanks are eroding because of the lack of stable bank protection and from frequent flooding. Stream flow appears to be a major limiting factor for
aquatic life in Plum Creek in the summer months. For example, flows were recorded as low as 0.4 cfs at CTH "D" on July 29, 1992.

Macroinvertebrate sample results indicate good to poor water quality with some to very significant organic pollution present. Macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity appears to be limited by the lack of suitable habitat.
The water is generally very turbid in Plum Creek which limits light penetration for desirable rooted aquatic plants. Filamentous algae, however, appears to be common on the rocks and along the banks.

Suspended solids, total and dissolved phosphorus, and bacteria levels were excessively high in Plum Creek at CTH "D" during five separate runoff events and even during one non-event related monitoring period in 1992. At these concentrations and stream t1ows, pollutant loading to the Fox River is substantial from the Plum Creek watershed.

Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements collected on Plum Creek at CTH "D" for six days in July 1992 show oxygen levels fall below the 5 mg/1 state standard in early morning hours. These diurnal fluctuations are caused by nutrient enrichment and algal photosynthesis and respiration when higher water temperatures depress oxygen solubility.
Date
7/1/1992

Impaired Water Notes
The Lower Fox River Basin TP and TSS TMDL was approved by the U.S. EPA on May 18, 2012. The TMDL covers 27 waterbody segments impaired by total phosphorus and 18 waterbodies impaired by TSS for a total of 45 TMDLs. These TMDLs address degraded habitat, low Dissolved Oxygen (DO), eutrophication, and turbidity impairments.
Date
5/25/2012

Impaired Water Notes
This water was assessed during the 2014 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2014 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use and biological impairment was observed (i.e. at least one macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the poor condition category).
Date
4/1/2014

Impaired Water Notes
This water was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use and biological impairment was observed (i.e. at least one macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the poor condition category).
Date
9/28/2015

Impaired Water Notes
This water was assessed during the 2020 listing cycle; new total phosphorus sample data overwhelmingly exceed 2020 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use and biological impairment was observed (i.e. at least one macroinvertebrate and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the poor condition category). Temperature was also assessed and does not exceed 2020 WisCALM criteria.
Date
6/14/2019

Impaired Water Notes
This water was assessed during the 2022 listing cycle; new total phosphorus sample data overwhelmingly exceed 2022 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use.
Date
5/24/2021

 
Pollutant
Sediment/Total Suspended Solids
Listed For
Fish and Aquatic Life
Impairments
Elevated Water Temperature, Degraded Habitat
Current Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
Listing Status
TMDL Approved
Attainable Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
Priority
Not Applicable
Designated Use
FAL - Fish and Aquatic Life Community
303(d) ID
368
Listing Date
4/1/1998
Impaired Water Notes
Aquatic life habitat of Plum Creek and its tributaries is generally poor. Clay is the predominant substrate type with little gravel, rubble and sand present. Many of the pools that are necessary to support fish and other aquatic life have been filled in from bank erosion and upland sediment runoff. The streambanks are eroding because of the lack of stable bank protection and from frequent flooding. Stream flow appears to be a major limiting factor for
aquatic life in Plum Creek in the summer months. For example, flows were recorded as low as 0.4 cfs at CTH "D" on July 29, 1992.

Macroinvertebrate sample results indicate good to poor water quality with some to very significant organic pollution present. Macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity appears to be limited by the lack of suitable habitat.
The water is generally very turbid in Plum Creek which limits light penetration for desirable rooted aquatic plants. Filamentous algae, however, appears to be common on the rocks and along the banks.

Suspended solids, total and dissolved phosphorus, and bacteria levels were excessively high in Plum Creek at CTH "D" during five separate runoff events and even during one non-event related monitoring period in 1992. At these concentrations and stream t1ows, pollutant loading to the Fox River is substantial from the Plum Creek watershed.

Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements collected on Plum Creek at CTH "D" for six days in July 1992 show oxygen levels fall below the 5 mg/1 state standard in early morning hours. These diurnal fluctuations are caused by nutrient enrichment and algal photosynthesis and respiration when higher water temperatures depress oxygen solubility.
Date
7/1/1992

Impaired Water Notes
The Lower Fox River Basin TP and TSS TMDL was approved by the U.S. EPA on May 18, 2012. The TMDL covers 27 waterbody segments impaired by total phosphorus and 18 waterbodies impaired by TSS for a total of 45 TMDLs. These TMDLs address degraded habitat, low Dissolved Oxygen (DO), eutrophication, and turbidity impairments.
Date
5/25/2012