Lake Weyauwega Targeted Watershed Assessment, Waupaca County

Project Title

Targeted Watershed Assessment Monitoring Report of the Lake Weyauwega Subwatershed of the Waupaca River Watershed, Waupaca County, Wisconsin
Author: Dave Bolha, Water Quality Biologist East District
Public review draft

Study Purpose & Setting

The Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed indicated some of the highest nutrient concentrations and poorest water quality in the Tomorrow-Waupaca River Watershed during a watershed assessment in 2016. This project provided baseline water quality data in support of the Natural Resource Conservation Service’s and Waupaca County Land and Water Conservation Department’s efforts to write an EPA Nine Key Element Plan and reduce nutrient and sediment runoff within the watershed.

Recommendations

The monitoring in 2017 indicate water quality in the tributaries of the Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed ranges from poor to excellent. Some of the land use characteristics observed during the 2017 monitoring project that can have a negative impact to the water quality of the tributaries to the Waupaca River were limited buffer protection along the stream corridors, wetland ditching, eroding streambanks, cropland erosion, channelization, cattle access, tile drainage, presence of aquatic invasive species, and sedimentation of fish and aquatic life habitat.

There are opportunities to install practices to lower the nutrients and sediment reaching the Waupaca River and Lake Weyauwega. Continuing efforts to work with landowners, farmers, municipalities, the county and Natural Resource Conservation Service staff to promote protection and restoration of the streams and wetlands by practices including, but not limited to, streambank and buffer protection, cover crops, nutrient management planning, reduced tillage, wetland protection and restoration, and water and sediment control basins.

Resources

The Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed of the Tomorrow-Waupaca River watershed drains a 20,743-acre area, which is about 11% of the Tomorrow-Waupaca River watershed. The sub-watershed drains into about 17 miles of the Waupaca River which starts on the East side of the City of Waupaca until it empties into the Wolf River near the City of Weyauwega. There is one significant impoundment of the Waupaca River, 253-acre Lake Weyauwega in the City of Weyauwega, which is both influenced by and has an impact on the water quality of the river. The Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River sub-watershed is dominated by agricultural land use at 46%, with some forested and open areas. About 13% of the sub-watershed is considered developed. Typically, as increases in agricultural land use occur, there is a correlating increase in TP and TN concentrations in creeks in the watersheds in Wisconsin. The monitoring of this project indicated high concentrations of TP and TN in most creeks of the sub-watershed (Table 6-7, Chart 1-2).

Methods & Procedures

Water Chemistry
During the growing season of 2017, Total Phosphorus (TP) samples were collected at 11 locations twice per month in May and June, and once per month in July through October (Table 1, Map 1). In addition, Total Nitrogen (TN) samples were also collected twice per month in May and June 2017 and once per month in July through October at the 11 locations listed in Table 1. Thirdly, Nitrates + Nitrites as Nitrogen (NO3 +NO2 as N) samples were collected at 6 of the sites in Table 1. All samples were collected using the standard WDNR grab sampling method for a total of 224 samples (WDNR 2015). Neither baseflow nor storm or snowmelt event sampling were targeted during this project, following the protocol of Wisconsin Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology (WisCALM 2016). All nutrient samples were shipped to Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WISLOH) for analysis. The WISLOH entered all sample analysis data into the WDNR Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) database.

Macroinvertebrates
Five locations were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates (insects and bugs) in October 2017 (Map 1, Table 2). All sites were sampled using the WDNR Guidelines for the Collection of Macroinvertebrate Samples from Wadeable Streams (2017). A D-shaped kicknet with 600 micron mesh was used at all sites by standing upstream from the net and placing it firmly on the stream bed while digging into the substrate with the heel or toe to free the macroinvertebrates from the substrate. Riffles were targeted at each of the sites, but if none were present then overhanging vegetation, woody debris, or other vegetation would be sampled. This was done by jabbing the net into the vegetation to free the invertebrates. For a representative sample of the aquatic macroinvertebrate community, a minimum of 100 aquatic macroinvertebrates collected in each sample was targeted. The aquatic macroinvertebrates were preserved in a 70-80% ethanol solution inside quart “Mason” jars. If necessary, multiple “Mason” jars were used per sample depending upon how much sediment and organic material was collected with the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Within the next 24 hours, the samples were re-preserved with another 70-80% ethanol solution. Samples were taken to the UWSP Aquatic Biomonitoring Laboratory (ABL) for lowest possible taxonomic identification. Staff at the ABL entered the data into the SWIMS database in 2018.

Fish Surveys
During July and August 2017, wadable fish surveys were conducted at 8 sites (Map 1, Table 3). The 8 wadable fish surveys were conducted following the WDNR Guidelines for Assessing Fish Communities of Wadable Streams in Wisconsin (2001). All 8 wadable sites were surveyed in July and August 2017 during the guidance-recommended summer time survey period. Stream flow and water chemistry data were recorded at each wadable site prior to conducting the fish survey. The wadable fish survey stations were a minimum of 35 times the mean stream width (overall minimum of 100 meters, overall maximum of 400 meters). A 12 Volt, 18 Amp Hour battery-powered backpack shocker was used for all 8 sites based upon the streams’ smaller width and depth. Catch per effort sampling procedures were used for this project (no particular species was targeted, all captured). A single upstream pass was made using 0.125 inch mesh nets to collect the fish. At the end of the station, captured fish were identified and counted and all game fish were measured for length. Once all data was collected, the fish were returned to the creek. Fish survey data was entered into the WDNR Fisheries and Habitat Management Database (FHMD) by WDNR Water Resources staff.

Water Temperature
Onset Hobo Pendant thermistors were deployed to collect temperature data from May through October at 6 locations in the Weyauwega Lake-Waupaca River Watershed (Table 4, Map 1). Stream temperature measurements were taken once per hour at each location from May through October. Temperature measurements were taken with an Onset Hobo Pendant thermistor attached to a fence post driven into the stream bed of the creek. The thermistor was attached to the fence post in such a manner as to suspend the thermistor in the water column low enough to stay under water in low flow conditions and high enough to not get buried in bottom substrate (~ 6 inches above the bottom). The thermistor was placed in a shaded location when possible. Temperature data were uploaded into the SWIMS database by WDNR Water Resources staff.

Habitat
Qualitative habitat surveys were conducted at 8 locations in the Weyauwega Lake-Waupaca River Watershed in July and August 2017 (Table 5, Map 1). All sites were surveyed following the WDNR Guidelines for Qualitative Physical Habitat Evaluation of Wadeable Streams (2007). Each qualitative habitat survey station length was 35 times the mean stream width of the survey station. Qualitative habitat surveys rapidly assess characteristics such as bank erosion, width to depth ratio, % fine sediments, and cover for fish. WDNR Water Resources staff entered the qualitative habitat data into the FHMD.



Study Results

Chemistry
The 2017 TP sample analysis results in the Weyauwega Lake-Waupaca River Watershed ranged from 0.026 mg/L at the Unnamed (Un) Tributary (Trib) at Hwy 54 in May to 0.901 mg/L at the Un Trib upstream of Galilee Rd West in June (Table 6, Map 2, Chart 1). All 11 locations in this project had an average TP concentration (mg/L) exceeding the Wisconsin Administrative Code ch. NR 102.06(3)(b) water quality criteria (WQC) for creeks at 0.075 mg/L (Table 6, Map 2, Chart 1). The average TP concentrations for the 11 sites in this project ranged from 0.088 mg/L at Whiskey Creek at Hwy 10 to 0.218 mg/L in the Un Trib upstream of Galilee Rd West (Table 6, Chart 1, Map 2).

TN analysis was also conducted on samples collected at all 11 project locations during the same sampling events as TP in 2017. TN samples were collected twice per month in May and June, and once per month in July through October (Table 7, Chart 2). The TN concentrations in the Waupaca River watershed ranged from 0.66 mg/L at the Un Trib to Lake Weyauwega at County AA in September to 18.3 mg/L in June in the Un Trib to Waupaca River 325m upstream of Galilee Rd East (Table 7, Chart 2).

At 6 of the locations listed in Table 1, NO3+NO2 as N analysis was also conducted on samples collected in May through October 2017 (Table 8, Chart 3). The NO3+NO2 as N concentrations in the Waupaca River watershed ranged from no detection at the Un Trib to Waupaca River at Hwy 54 in June to 8.77 mg/L in September in the Un Trib to Waupaca River at Airport Rd (Table 8, Chart 3).

Macroinvertebrates
Aquatic insect communities were sampled at 5 locations in October 2017 (Table 2). Some aquatic insect species are tolerant of environmental degradation, while some species are moderately tolerant, and some others are intolerant. Based upon the representative insects collected and their associated tolerance to environmental degradation, an Index of Biotic Integrity (MIBI) was calculated to indicate the water quality condition of the stream (Table 9, Chart 4). In general, the higher the MIBI score, the better the water quality rating for a waterbody. The MIBI scores ranged from 2.73 in the Un Trib at Harrington Road West to 4.49 in the Un Trib at Airport Road (Table 9, Chart 4). The Condition Categories for the 5 sites were all Fair, indicating significant impacts from environmental degradation.

Fish
During July and August 2017, 8 sites in the Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River Watershed were surveyed for representative fish communities. Some fish species are tolerant of environmental degradation, while some species are moderately tolerant, and some others are intolerant. Based upon the representative fish collected during the survey and their associated tolerance to environmental degradation, an Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI) was calculated to indicate the water quality of each creek or river (Table 10, Chart 5, Map 3). The FIBI scores ranged from 30 in the Un Trib at Den Ed Rd, to 100 in the Un Trib at Harrington Rd West (Table 10, Chart 5, Map 3). Five of the sites scored a Condition Category of Fair, with one site each scoring as Poor, Good, and Excellent. The 8 fish surveys demonstrate that these streams range from no apparent environmental degradation to significant environmental degradation.

Each fish community surveyed was used to verify or update the modeled Natural Community for that stream segment. Each of the 8 tributary streams’ Natural Community was verified or changed based upon the fish caught in the survey (and any historical known surveys in that stream segment). Verifying or changing the modeled Natural Community was important since the Natural Community determines which FIBI was used to determine the water quality of that stream segment. The results of the calculated FIBI calculations displayed in Table 10 and Chart 5 are based upon the verified or changed Natural Community.

Water Temperature
Water temperature data was collected from May through October 2017 at 6 locations in the Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River Watershed (Table 4, Map 1). Monthly average temperatures were reported for months with complete data only (Table 11, Chart 6). The stream water temperatures at the sites monitored in 2017 during the time of deployment ranged from 46.5F at the Un Trib at Harrington Rd East on 10/16/2017 to 77.1F in the Un Trib at Galilee Rd East on 7/18/2017. The average monthly temperatures ranged from 56.4F in the Un Trib at Galilee Rd West in September to 66.9F in the Un Trib at Galilee Rd East and Whiskey Creek upstream of Hwy 10 in July (Table 11, Chart 6, Map 4). The Maximum Daily Averages (MDM) ranged from 66.8F in the Un Trib at Den Ed Rd to 70.6F in the Whiskey Creek upstream of Hwy 10 (Table 11, Chart 6, Map 4).

Habitat
In June through September 2017, qualitative habitat surveys were conducted at 8 locations in the Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River Watershed (Table 5, Map 1). The qualitative habitat surveys were conducted at the same locations as the fish survey locations following Guidelines for Qualitative Physical Habitat Evaluation of Wadeable Streams (2007). WDNR Water Resources staff entered the habitat data into the FHMD. Based upon the habitat information collected during the 2017 surveys, a habitat rating was calculated for the 8 locations in Table 5 (Table 12, Chart 7, Map 5). The habitat scores ranged from 15 at the Un Trib to the Waupaca River at Galilee Rd West to 72 at the Un Trib to the Waupaca River at Airport Rd. Three sites scored a Condition Category of Good, four sites had a Condition Category of Fair, and one site rated as poor (Table 12, Chart 7, Map 5).

Study Discussion

This project provided baseline water quality data in support of the Waupaca County Land and Water Conservation Department’s efforts to write an EPA Nine Key Element Plan (9KE) and their efforts (along with other partners) to reduce nutrient and sediment runoff within the watershed. “Watershed plans consistent with EPA’s 9KE provide a framework for improving the contributing causes and sources of non-point source pollution, involve key stakeholders and prioritize restoration and protection strategies to address water quality problems” (WDNR 2018). Having an approved 9KE plan can increase opportunities for federal and state funding for the installation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs), which focus on reducing the discharge of non-point source pollutants into the surface waters of the sub-watershed. The monitoring during this project provided the current water quality conditions of the surface waters in the sub-watershed and data that can be compared to the water quality conditions after BMPs have been installed. The monitoring conducted in the Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River sub-watershed indicates the need and opportunity for water quality improvements. The nutrient, aquatic insect, and fish monitoring in this project demonstrated that the water quality in the Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River sub-watershed is between poor and excellent condition.

The Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed of the Tomorrow-Waupaca River watershed drains a 20,743-acre area, which is about 11% of the Tomorrow-Waupaca River watershed. The sub-watershed drains into about 17 miles of the Waupaca River which starts on the East side of the City of Waupaca until it empties into the Wolf River near the City of Weyauwega. There is one significant impoundment of the Waupaca River, 253-acre Lake Weyauwega in the City of Weyauwega, which is both influenced by and has an impact on the water quality of the river. The Lake Weyauwega-Waupaca River sub-watershed is dominated by agricultural land use at 46%, with some forested and open areas. About 13% of the sub-watershed is considered developed. Typically, as increases in agricultural land use occur, there is a correlating increase in TP and TN concentrations in creeks in the watersheds in Wisconsin. The monitoring of this project indicated high concentrations of TP and TN in most creeks of the sub-watershed (Table 6-7, Chart 1-2).

All 11 of the sites monitored for TP had an average concentration greater than the Wisconsin Administrative Code ch. NR 102 Water Quality Criteria (WQC) for streams at 0.075 mg/L. Therefore, an impairment assessment was conducted to verify whether the Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed TP concentrations met the WQC or if the waterbodies should be placed on the EPA Clean Water Act Section 303d Impaired Waters List (CWA 303d IWL). The sampling requirements to demonstrate if WQC for TP were being met, clearly exceeded, or overwhelmingly exceeded were accomplished through this project. The impairment assessment protocol requires a parametric statistical approach to assess stream and river TP data against the applicable water quality criterion (WisCALM 2016). This approach involves the calculation of a 90% confidence limit around the median of a TP sample dataset. If the lower 90% confidence limit (LCL) exceeds the criterion for TP, then that stream segment (assessment unit) is considered to be exceeding the criterion. The LCLs were calculated for each complete set of TP samples (Table 13). Two of the 11 Waupaca River tributary sample sets met the WQC of 0.075mg/L. Of the 11 tributaries, 73% of the LCLs exceeded (LCL of >0.075mg/L) the water quality criterion for TP (Table 13, Chart 8). The stream TP WQC does not apply to the wetland ditch to Lake Weyauwega upstream of Haire Rd; however, the LCL was calculated for reference.
In 2017, concentrations of Total Nitrogen were significantly higher in the streams on the south side of the Waupaca River than those on the north. The median TN concentrations of the 5 locations on the north side of the Waupaca River were less than 2 mg/L. Whereas, the 6 monitoring sites on the south side of the river had median TN concentrations ranging from 3.2 to 9.8 mg/L (Chart 9). This, along with the physical-habitat conditions of the watershed, is contributing to the depressed FIBI scores in the streams on the south side of the river.

Management Recommendations

The monitoring in 2017 indicate water quality in the tributaries of the Lake Weyauwega sub-watershed ranges from poor to excellent. Some of the land use characteristics observed during the 2017 monitoring project that can have a negative impact to the water quality of the tributaries to the Waupaca River were limited buffer protection along the stream corridors, wetland ditching, eroding streambanks, cropland erosion, channelization, cattle access, tile drainage, presence of aquatic invasive species, and sedimentation of fish and aquatic life habitat.

There are opportunities to install practices to lower the nutrients and sediment reaching the Waupaca River and Lake Weyauwega. Continuing efforts to work with landowners, farmers, municipalities, the county and Natural Resource Conservation Service staff to promote protection and restoration of the streams and wetlands by practices including, but not limited to, streambank and buffer protection, cover crops, nutrient management planning, reduced tillage, wetland protection and restoration, and water and sediment control basins.

Monitoring and Planning

This Water Quality Management Report was created under the state’s Water Resources Planning and Monitoring Programs. The plan reflects water quality program priorities and Water Resources Monitoring Strategy 2015-2020 and fulfills Wisconsin’s Areawide Water Quality Management Plan requirements under Section 208 of the Clean Water Act. Condition information and resource management recommendations support and guide program priorities for the planning area.

This WQM Plan is approved by the Wisconsin DNR and is a formal update to Waupaca Watershed in the Wolf River Basin Areawide Water Quality Management Plan and Wisconsin’s statewide Areawide Water Quality Management Plan (AWQM Plan). This plan will be forwarded to USEPA for certification as a formal update to Wisconsin’s AWQM Plan.

Contributors

David Bolha, Primary Author and Investigator, Eastern District, Wisconsin DNR
Lisa Kosmond Helmuth, Program Coordinator, Water Quality Bureau, Wisconsin DNR

Partners

Portage, Waupaca, Waushara Land and Water Conservation Departments

Water Details

Waupaca River, 257400
The Waupaca/Tomorrow River flows for about 63 miles in this watershed. Above the City of Waupaca the river is classified as Class II trout water with portions of the Tomorrow River classified as Class I; below the city the river contains warm water and forage fish species.

The Tomorrow River portion is one of the best trout streams in the area and is listed in NR 102 as an Outstanding Resource Water for the Class I trout portions. In addition to the fishery, this stream is important for its recreational potential. The major tributary is the Crystal River. Fisheries managers indicate that agricultural runoff from feedlots and streambank erosion from cattle pasturing in/near the river has negative impact on river water quality. The Waupaca Foundry in Waupaca discharges to the Waupaca River. This section of the river is a warm water sport fishery.

In the past, Fisheries has conducted extensive fish habitat work on the lower reaches of the Waupaca River. The Stewardship Program is recommended to continue to improve and compliment the fisheries streambank and habitat improvement work that has been completed.

On the river, the Nelsonville Dam was removed in 1988 to improve water quality and the Tomorrow River trout fishery. The Amherst Dam should also be considered for removal when feasible to improve water quality and the trout fishery in the Tomorrow River. The Waupaca Foundry in Waupaca discharges to the Waupaca River. Historically, the facility had consistently exceeded categorical, total phenolic limits since start-up of the new plant in 1986.

Lake Weyauwega, 257700
Lake Weyauwega is a very fertile, hard water impoundment of the Waupaca River containing light brown water. Sand and muck are the predominant littoral bottom types. Lake Weyauwega supports healthy gamefish and panfish populations. Northern pike and largemouth bass are the two most common gamefish species in Weyauwega Millpond but smallmouth bass can also be found in the impoundment. The Waupaca River upstream from Lake Weyauwega supports a more abundant smallmouth bass population with some smallmouth bass moving down into the impoundment at times. Bluegill are the most common panfish species found in Lake Weyauwega, with pumpkinseed, black crappie, and yellow perch also being present in the lake. Other species such as white sucker, black bullhead, and shorthead redhorse can also be found in Lake Weyauwega.

Unnamed Stream, 257800
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations. The fish and macroinvertebrate communities indicate fair water quality in the stream.

Unnamed Stream, 257900
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and the fish community in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations. The fish community indicates fair water quality in the stream.

Unnamed Stream, 258000
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus concentrations. The macroinvertebrate community indicates fair water quality in the stream, while the fish community indicates excellent water quality.

Unnamed Trib to Waupaca River, 258100
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations and fish community in 2017. This unnamed stream was assessed for macroinvertebrate community in 2016. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations. The fish and macroinvertebrate communities indicate fair water quality in the stream.

Unnamed Stream, 5020550
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus concentrations. The macroinvertebrate community indicates fair water quality in the stream, while the fish community indicates good water quality.

Unnamed Stream, 5020640
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus concentrations.

Unnamed Stream, 5021203
This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations. The fish and macroinvertebrate communities indicate fair water quality in the stream.

Unnamed Trib to Waupaca River, 5021414
Unnamed Trib to Waupaca River (WBIC 5021414) was assessed during the 2018 listing cycle; new temperature sample data were clearly below the 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. This water is meeting this designated use and is not considered impaired. This water was considered a new Category 2 water. This unnamed stream was assessed for nutrient concentrations, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in 2017. The 2017 monitoring effort indicated high phosphorus and nutrient concentrations. The fish community indicated poor water quality in the stream, while the macroinvertebrate community indicated fair water quality.

References

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2001. Guidelines for Assessing Fish Communities of Wadable Streams in Wisconsin.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2007. Guidelines for Qualitative Physical Habitat Evaluation of Wadable Streams.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2010. Wisconsin Administrative Code ch. NR 102: Water Quality Standards for Wisconsin Surface Waters.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2015. Nutrient Chemistry Grab Sampling (V3.2) DNR Water Quality Monitoring Program.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2016. Wisconsin Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology Guidance Document.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 2017. Guidelines for the Standard Collection of Macroinvertebrate Samples from Wadeable Streams (v2.0).

Abbreviations

AEL: Aquatic Entomology Laboratory at UW Stevens Point: the primary laboratory for analysis of macroinvertebrate taxonomy in the State of Wisconsin.

BMP: Best Management Practice. A land management practice used to prevent or reduce nonpoint source pollution such as runoff, total suspended solids, or excess nutrients.

DATCP: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection the state agency in partnership with DNR responsible for a variety of land and water related programs.

DNR: Department of Natural Resources. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is an agency of the State of Wisconsin created to preserve, protect, manage, and support natural resources.

END: Endangered Species - Wisconsin species designated as rare or unique due to proximity to the farthest extent of their natural range or due to anthropogenic deleterious impacts on the landscape or both.

ERW: Exceptional Resource Water- Wisconsin?s designation under state water quality standards to waters with exceptional quality and which may be provided a higher level of protection through various programs and processes.

FMDB: Fisheries Management Database ? or Fish Database ? the state?s repository for fish taxonomy and auto-calculated metrics involving fish assemblage condition and related.

FIBI: Fish Index of biological integrity (Fish IBI). An Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) is a scientific tool used to gauge water condition based on biological data. Results indicate condition and provide insight into potential degradation sources. In Wisconsin, specific fish IBI tools are developed for specific natural communities. Therefore, biologists must review and confirm the natural community to use the correct fish IBI tool.

HUC: Hydrologic Unit Code. A sequence of numbers that represent one of a series of nested hydrologic catchments delineated by a consortium of agencies including USGS, USFS, and Wisconsin DNR.

MIBI: Macroinvertebrate Index of biological integrity. The mIBI is the primary tool used to assess stream macroinvertebrate community condition. NC: Natural Community. A system of categorizing water based on inherent physical, hydrologic, and biological components. Streams and Lakes have uniquely derived systems that result in specific natural community designations for each lake and river segment in the state.

These designations dictate the appropriate assessment tools which improves the condition result, reflecting detailed nuances reflecting the modeling and analysis work foundational to the assessment systems.

Monitoring Seq. No. Monitoring sequence number refers to a unique identification code generated by the Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), which holds much of the state?s water quality monitoring data except for fisheries taxonomy and habitat data.

MDM: Maximum Daily Averages ? maximum daily average is a calculated metric that may be used for temperature, dissolved oxygen and related chemistry parameters to characterize water condition.

NC: Natural Community. A system of categorizing water based on inherent physical, hydrologic, and biological components. Streams and Lakes have uniquely derived systems that result in specific natural community designations for each lake and river segment in the state. These designations dictate the appropriate assessment tools which improves the condition result, reflecting detailed nuances reflecting the modeling and analysis work foundational to the assessment systems.

mg/L: milligrams per liter - a volumetric measure typically used in chemistry analysis characterizations.

NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ? a federal agency responsible for water / aquatic related activities involve the open waters, seas and Great Lakes.

ND: No detection ? a term used typically in analytical settings to identify when a parameter or chemical constituent was not present at levels higher than the limit of detection.

NRCS: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service - the federal agency providing local support and land management outreach work with landowners and partners such as state agencies.
ORW: Outstanding Resource WaterWisconsin�s designation under state water quality standards to waters with outstanding quality and which may be provided a higher level of protection through various programs and processes.

SC: Species of Special Concern- species designated as special concern due to proximity to the farthest extent of their natural range or due to anthropogenic deleterious impacts on the landscape, or both.

SWIMS ID. Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) identification number is the unique monitoring station identification number for the location of monitoring data.

TDP: Total Dissolved Phosphorus � an analyzed chemistry parameter collected in aquatic systems positively correlated with excess productivity and eutrophication in Wisconsin waters.

TMDL: Total Maximum Daily Load � a technical report required for impaired waters Clean Water Act. TMDLs identify sources, sinks and impairments associated with the pollutant causing documented impairments.

TP: Total Phosphorus - an analyzed chemical parameter collected in aquatic systems frequently positively correlated with excess productivity and eutrophication in many of Wisconsin�s waters.

TWA: Targeted Watershed Assessment. A monitoring study design centered on catchments or watersheds that uses a blend of geometric study design and targeted site selection to gather baseline data and additional collection work for unique and site-specific concerns for complex environmental questions including effectiveness monitoring of management actions, evaluation surveys for site specific criteria or permits, protection projects, and generalized watershed planning studies.

TSS: Total suspended solids � an analyzed physical parameter collected in aquatic systems that is frequently positively correlated with excess productivity, reduced water clarity, reduced dissolved oxygen and degraded biological communities.

WATERS ID. The Waterbody Assessment, Tracking, and Electronic Reporting System Identification Code. The WATERS ID is a unique numerical sequence number assigned by the WATERS system, also known as Assessment Unit ID code. This code is used to identify unique stream segments or lakes assessed and stored in the WATERS system.

WBIC: Water Body Identification Code. WDNR unique identification codes assigned to water features in the state. The lines and information allow the user to execute spatial and tabular queries about the data, make maps, and perform flow analysis and network traces.

WSLH: Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene� the state�s certified laboratory that provides a wide range of analytical services including toxicology, chemistry, and data sharing.

WQC: Water quality criteria � a component of Wisconsin�s water quality standards that provide numerical endpoints for specific chemical, physical, and biological constituents.