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Map showing the Northwest Sands Ecological Landscape
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For information on Wisconsin's Ecological Landscapes, contact:
Andy Stoltman

Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape

Download the Southeast Glacial Plains chapter [PDF] of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin. This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the ecological and socioeconomic conditions for the Southeast Glacial Plains. It also identifies important planning and management considerations and suggests management opportunities that are compatible with the ecology of the landscape. The tabs below provide additional information.

Landscape at a Glance

Physical & Biotic Environment


7,725 square miles (4,943,731 acres), representing 13.8% of the land area of the State of Wisconsin.


Typical of southern Wisconsin; mean growing season of 155 days, mean annual temperature is 45.9 deg. F, mean annual precipitation is 33.6 inches, and mean annual snowfall is 39.4 inches. The climate is suitable for agricultural row crops, small grains, and pastures, which are prevalent in this Ecological Landscape.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Primarily underlain by limestone and dolomite with some sandstone and shale. Generally covered by a thick layer of glacial deposits (>50 feet). The southernmost exposures of the Silurian dolomite "Niagara Escarpment" occur west and south of Lake Winnebago.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Geology & Landforms

The dominant landforms are glacial till plains and moraines composed mostly of materials deposited during the Wisconsin Ice Age, but the southwestern part of the Ecological Landscape consists of older, pre-Wisconsin till and the topography is more dissected. Other glacial landforms, including drumlins, outwash plains, eskers, kames and kettles are also well-represented kames, eskers, and kettles. The "Kettle Moraine" is an area of rough topography on the eastern side of the Southeast Glacial Plains that marks the areas of contact between the Green Bay and Lake Michigan glacial lobes. Numerous excellent examples of glacial features occur and are highly visible in the Kettle Moraine.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Soils are derived from lime-rich tills overlain in most areas by a silt-loam loess cap.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


The Southeast Glacial Plains has the highest aquatic productivity for plants, insects, other invertebrates, and fish of any Ecological Landscape in the state. Significant river systems include the Wolf, Bark, Rock, Fox, Milwaukee, Sugar, Mukwonago, and Sheboygan. Most riparian zones have been degraded. Several clusters of large lakes exist, including the Yahara chain of lakes in and around Madison, and the Lake Winnebago Pool system. Kettle lakes occur within end moraines, in outwash channels, and in ancient riverbeds. This Ecological Landscape contains some huge marshes, as well as fens, sedge meadows, wet prairies, tamarack swamps, and floodplain forests. Many wetlands here have been affected by hydrologic modifications (ditching, diking, tiling), grazing, infestations of invasive plants, and excessive inputs of sediment- and nutrient-laden runoff from croplands.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Current Landcover

Primarily agricultural cropland (58% of Landscape). Remaining forests occupy only 11% of the land area and major covertypes include maple-basswood, oak, lowland hardwoods, and conifer swamps (mostly tamarack-dominated). No large areas of upland forest exist except on the Kettle Interlobate Moraine, where the topography is too rugged to practice intensive agriculture and the soils are not always conducive to high crop productivity. Wetlands are extensive (12% of Landscape, 593,248 acres) and include large marshes and sedge meadows, and extensive forested lowlands within the Lower Wolf River floodplain. Forested lowlands are also significant along stretches of the Milwaukee, Sugar, and Rock rivers.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

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Socioeconomic Conditions
(based on data from Calumet, Columbia, Dane, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Green, Green Lake, Jefferson, Ozaukee, Rock, Sheboygan, Walworth, Washington, Waukesha, Waupaca, and Winnebago counties)


1,519,000, 28.5% of the state total

Population Density

204 persons/ sq. mile

Per Capita Income


Important Economic Sectors

Manufacturing (non-wood) (13.9% v. statewide 11.7%); Government (12.6% v. statewide: 12.1%); Tourism-related (10.6% vs. statewide: 11.2%); Retail trade (9.2% v. statewide: 9.0%) sectors employed the most people in 2007 reflecting high non-wood manufacturing and government service. Although agriculture, residential development (and urbanization) and forestry do not have a large impact on the economy or the number of jobs, they are the sectors that have the largest impact on the natural resources in the Ecological Landscape (in recent years groundwater withdrawals by municipalities to accommodate urban-industrial growth have raised concerns about protecting our water supplies, as well as lakes, stream, and wetlands).

Public Ownership

Only four percent of the Southeast Glacial Plains is in public ownership (226,230 acres), of which 58% is wetland and 42% is upland. Major public lands include Horicon National Wildlife Refuge and Horicon State Wildlife Area, and the Northern and Southern Units of the Kettle Moraine State Forest. Other state lands here are managed for fish, wildlife, natural areas, and recreation. The Cedarburg Bog, an extensive wetland complex in southeastern Wisconsin, is owned by the University of Wisconsin system and the Wisconsin DNR. County-owned lands are not extensive but include ecologically significant features, including several ecologically important stretches of the Niagara Escarpment. A map entitled "Public Land Ownership and Private land enrolled in the Forest Tax Programs in the Southeast Glacial Plains" can be found at the end of this chapter.

Other Notable Ownerships

The Nature Conservancy, in cooperation with the Wisconsin DNR and others, has a major project designed to protect the Mukwonago River watershed (including Lulu Lake) in the southeastern part of the Ecological Landscape. The Waukesha County Land Conservancy has several active projects aimed at protecting lands of high ecological significance. Other NGOs, including the Madison Audubon Society and groups active in local preservation efforts in other counties, also have active conservation projects in the Southeast Glacial Plains.

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Considerations for Planning & Management

The Southeast Glacial Plains is heavily developed and highly populated. Pressure on natural resources, including ground and surface waters, is high and unlikely to diminish in the short-term. The amount of impervious surface is increasing in some watersheds, raising concerns about our ability to protect sensitive aquatic life and associated wetlands. Fragmentation is severe and isolation of native habitats is a major concern. Many invasive species are now widespread, well established, and have expanding populations here. Public ownership is limited and partnerships between public and private partners will be essential to accomplish long-term management goals and objectives for natural resources.

The Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) has conducted biological inventories for the seven counties in which they have jurisdiction and identified important natural areas and sensitive species populations; all seven of the SEWRPC counties are at least partially located within the Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape. The Wisconsin DNR has also conducted biological inventory work throughout the Southeast Glacial Plains

While in general reconnecting isolated habitat patches is a positive, and ultimately often necessary, action, when habitats lacking invasives are identified planners and other stakeholders need to be sure be sure that pathways for colonization by invasive species have not been created or increased, and that control measures for both existing and future problems created by these species are anticipated and built into management plans and the budgeting process.

For the two units of the Kettle Moraine State Forest, and at some of the larger wetland complexes (such as those at Horicon, along the Lower Wolf River, Sugar, and Milwaukee rivers, or in the Mukwonago River Watershed, planning at large scales will have many benefits to best ensure long-term viability of the resources present, as those areas offer many opportunities that smaller more isolated sites cannot.  Learn more about management opportunities from the chapter [PDF]

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Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Species of Greatest Conservation Need

The following species are listed according to their probability of occurring in the Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape, based on the findings in Wisconsin's 2015 Wildlife Action Plan.

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

Four-toed SalamanderHemidactylium scutatum3
Blanchard's Cricket FrogAcris blanchardi2
Pickerel FrogLithobates palustris3

Ants, wasps, and beesScore
Rusty-patched Bumble BeeBombus affinis2
Yellow Bumble BeeBombus fervidus1
Confusing Bumble BeeBombus perplexus2
Yellowbanded Bumble BeeBombus terricola1
American Bumble BeeBombus pensylvanicus2
Silphium Terminal Gall WaspAntistrophus silphii3

Aquatic and terrestrial snailsScore
Cherrystone DropHendersonia occulta1
Deep-throated VertigoVertigo nylanderi2
Hubricht's VertigoVertigo hubrichti2
Eastern Flat-whorlPlanogyra asteriscus1
Dentate SupercoilParavitrea multidentata1
Black StriateStriatura ferrea1
Transparent Vitrine SnailVitrina angelicae1

Hairy-necked Tiger BeetleCicindela hirticollis hirticollis1
Sandy Stream Tiger BeetleEllipsoptera macra1
Ghost Tiger BeetleEllipsoptera lepida2
A Leaf BeetleAltica litigata2
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHygrotus marklini3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHygrotus farctus2
A Predaceous Diving BeetlePlatambus confusus1
A Predaceous Diving BeetleAgabus aeruginosus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleAgabus discolor2
Robust Dubiraphian Riffle BeetleDubiraphia robusta3
Douglas Stenelmis Riffle BeetleStenelmis douglasensis3
A Riffle BeetleStenelmis fuscata3
A Riffle BeetleStenelmis musgravei3
A Riffle BeetleStenelmis sexlineata3
A Riffle BeetleStenelmis quadrimaculata3
A Minute Moss BeetleOchthebius lineatus3
A Water Scavenger BeetleHydrochara leechi3
Cantrall's Bog BeetleLiodessus cantralli3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleIlybius confusus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleCopelatus chevrolati3
A Leaf BeetleBrachypnoea convexa1
A Water Scavenger BeetleAgabetes acuductus2
A Leaf BeetleBassareus lituratus1
A Pear-shaped WeevilSayapion segnipes2
A Leaf BeetleGlyptina brunnea1
A Straight-snouted WeevilEutrichapion huron1
A Pear-shaped WeevilFallapion impeditum1
A Pear-shaped WeevilCoelocephalapion decoloratum1
A Pear-shaped WeevilTrichapion perforicolle1
A Pear-shaped WeevilFallapion bischoffi2
A Case-bearing Leaf BeetleTriachus vacuus1
A Predaceous Diving BeetleColymbetes exaratus3
A Colaspis Leaf BeetleColaspis suggona3
A Leaf BeetleCryptocephalus venustus3
A Leaf BeetleCryptocephalus cuneatus2
A Leaf BeetleSaxinis omogera2
A Predaceous Diving BeetleThermonectus basilaris3
A Leaf BeetlePachybrachis atomarius2
A Leaf BeetlePachybrachis peccans1
A Predaceous Diving BeetleLaccornis deltoides3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleCybister fimbriolatus3

Red-necked GrebePodiceps grisegena3
American BitternBotaurus lentiginosus3
Least BitternIxobrychus exilis3
Black-crowned Night-HeronNycticorax nycticorax3
Yellow-crowned Night-HeronNyctanassa violacea2
American Black DuckAnas rubripes1
Red-shouldered HawkButeo lineatus2
Northern BobwhiteColinus virginianus2
King RailRallus elegans3
Whooping CraneGrus americana3
Black-necked StiltHimantopus mexicanus1
Upland SandpiperBartramia longicauda2
American WoodcockScolopax minor3
Wilson's PhalaropePhalaropus tricolor2
Common TernSterna hirundo3
Forster's TernSterna forsteri3
Black TernChlidonias niger3
Long-eared OwlAsio otus1
Short-eared OwlAsio flammeus3
Common NighthawkChordeiles minor2
Eastern Whip-poor-willAntrostomus vociferus2
Red-headed WoodpeckerMelanerpes erythrocephalus3
Acadian FlycatcherEmpidonax virescens2
Least FlycatcherEmpidonax minimus3
Purple MartinProgne subis3
Loggerhead ShrikeLanius ludovicianus2
Bell's VireoVireo bellii2
Golden-winged WarblerVermivora chrysoptera2
Yellow-throated WarblerSetophaga dominica1
Cerulean WarblerSetophaga cerulea3
Prothonotary WarblerProtonotaria citrea3
Worm-eating WarblerHelmitheros vermivorum1
Hooded WarblerSetophaga citrina3
Yellow-breasted ChatIcteria virens3
DickcisselSpiza americana3
Vesper SparrowPooecetes gramineus3
Lark SparrowChondestes grammacus2
Grasshopper SparrowAmmodramus savannarum3
Henslow's SparrowAmmodramus henslowii3
BobolinkDolichonyx oryzivorus3
Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magna3
Western MeadowlarkSturnella neglecta3
Yellow-headed BlackbirdXanthocephalus xanthocephalus3
Rusty BlackbirdEuphagus carolinus3
Brewer's BlackbirdEuphagus cyanocephalus1

Butterflies and mothsScore
Mottled Dusky WingErynnis martialis1
Columbine Dusky WingErynnis lucilius2
Poweshiek SkipperlingOarisma poweshiek3
Ottoe SkipperHesperia ottoe1
Cross Line SkipperPolites origenes2
Gray CopperLycaena dione1
Swamp MetalmarkCalephelis muticum3
Regal FritillarySpeyeria idalia2
Gorgone Checker SpotChlosyne gorgone1
Midwestern Fen BuckmothHemileuca nevadensis ssp. 32
Abbreviated Underwing MothCatocala abbreviatella1
Whitney's Underwing MothCatocala whitneyi1
Owl-eyed Bird Dropping MothCerma cora1
A Noctuid MothBagisara gulnare1
Silphium Borer MothPapaipema silphii3
Liatris Borer MothPapaipema beeriana3
A Noctuid MothDichagyris reliqua1
Leadplant Flower MothSchinia lucens2

A Fingernet CaddisflyWormaldia moesta2

Prairie CrayfishProcambarus gracilis2

Dragonflies and damselfliesScore
Delta-spotted SpiketailCordulegaster diastatops1
Pronghorn ClubtailGomphus graslinellus3
Mottled DarnerAeshna clepsydra2
Spatterdock DarnerRhionaeschna mutata1
Swamp DarnerEpiaeschna heros3
Plains EmeraldSomatochlora ensigera1
Hine's EmeraldSomatochlora hineana3
Spangled SkimmerLibellula cyanea1
Slaty SkimmerLibellula incesta2
Painted SkimmerLibellula semifasciata1
Smoky RubyspotHetaerina titia3
Springwater DancerArgia plana1
Double-striped BluetEnallagma basidens2
Lilypad ForktailIschnura kellicotti1
Unicorn ClubtailArigomphus villosipes3

Lake SturgeonAcipenser fulvescens3
American EelAnguilla rostrata1
Pugnose ShinerNotropis anogenus3
Ozark MinnowNotropis nubilus3
Gravel ChubErimystax x-punctatus3
Redfin ShinerLythrurus umbratilis3
Lake ChubsuckerErimyzon sucetta3
Black BuffaloIctiobus niger2
River RedhorseMoxostoma carinatum3
Black RedhorseMoxostoma duquesnei1
Slender MadtomNoturus exilis3
Starhead TopminnowFundulus dispar3
Longear SunfishLepomis megalotis3
Least DarterEtheostoma microperca3

Grasshoppers and alliesScore
Blue-legged GrasshopperMelanoplus flavidus1
Grizzly Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus punctulatus1
Huckleberry Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus fasciatus1
Scudder's Short-winged GrasshopperMelanoplus scudderi1
Seaside GrasshopperTrimerotropis maritima2
Spotted-winged GrasshopperOrphulella pelidna2
Bog ConeheadNeoconocephalus lyristes2
Delicate Meadow KatydidOrchelimum delicatum2
Black-striped KatydidScudderia fasciata1
Speckled Rangeland GrasshopperArphia conspersa1
Clear-winged GrasshopperCamnula pellucida2
Handsome GrasshopperSyrbula admirabilis2
Ash-brown GrasshopperTrachyrhachys kiowa2
Mermiria GrasshopperMermiria bivittata2
Club-horned GrasshopperAeropedellus clavatus1
Short-winged GrasshopperDichromorpha viridis2
Velvet-striped GrasshopperEritettix simplex1
Obscure GrasshopperOpeia obscura2

Leafhoppers and true bugsScore
Acuminate Water BoatmanRamphocorixa acuminata3
A Seed BugSlaterobius quadristriata1
A Water StriderNeogerris hesione3
A LeafhopperLimotettix elegans1
A LeafhopperFlexamia prairiana3
Red-tailed Prairie LeafhopperAflexia rubranura2
A LeafhopperPrairiana kansana2
A LeafhopperPrairiana cinerea2
A LeafhopperPrairiana angustens2
A LeafhopperParaphlepsius altus1
A LeafhopperParaphlepsius nebulosus3
A LeafhopperDestria crocea1
A LeafhopperLaevicephalus vannus2
Prairie LeafhopperPolyamia dilata1
An Issid PlanthopperBruchomorpha extensa2
An Issid PlanthopperFitchiella robertsonii1
A LeafhopperKansendria kansiensis2
A LeafhopperCuerna sayi2
A LeafhopperMemnonia panzeri3
A PlanthopperMyndus ovatus3
Piglet BugAphelonema simplex2
Yellow Loosestrife LeafhopperErythroneura carbonata2

Water ShrewSorex palustris1
Little Brown BatMyotis lucifugus3
Northern Long-eared BatMyotis septentrionalis2
Silver-haired BatLasionycteris noctivagans2
Eastern PipistrellePerimyotis subflavus2
Big Brown BatEptesicus fuscus3
Franklin's Ground SquirrelPoliocitellus franklinii3
Prairie Deer MousePeromyscus maniculatus bairdii2
Prairie VoleMicrotus ochrogaster2
Woodland VoleMicrotus pinetorum2

A Brush-legged MayflyHomoeoneuria ammophila3
A Common Burrower MayflyPentagenia vittigera2
Pecatonica River MayflyAcanthametropus pecatonica2
A Small Minnow MayflyParacloeodes minutus2
A Flat-headed MayflyMaccaffertium pulchellum1
Fox Small Square-gilled MayflyCercobrachys fox2
Winnebago Small Square-gilled MayflyCercobrachys winnebago3
Wisconsin Small Square-gilled MayflyCercobrachys lilliei2

Mussels and clamsScore
ElktoeAlasmidonta marginata2
Slippershell MusselAlasmidonta viridis3
Flat FloaterAnodonta suborbiculata1
Purple WartybackCyclonaias tuberculata1
Yellow & Slough SandshellsLampsilis teres1
WashboardMegalonaias nervosa1
MonkeyfaceTheliderma metanevra1
MapleleafQuadrula quadrula2
Salamander MusselSimpsonaias ambigua1
BuckhornTritogonia verrucosa2
Rainbow ShellVillosa iris3
EllipseVenustaconcha ellipsiformis3

Wood TurtleGlyptemys insculpta1
Blanding's TurtleEmydoidea blandingii3
Ornate Box TurtleTerrapene ornata3
North American RacerColuber constrictor2
QueensnakeRegina septemvittata3
Butler's GartersnakeThamnophis butleri3
Western RibbonsnakeThamnophis proximus1
Plains GartersnakeThamnophis radix2
Eastern RibbonsnakeThamnophis sauritus2
Eastern MassasaugaSistrurus catenatus3

Community opportunities

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Natural community management opportunities

The Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape contains opportunities to manage for the following natural communities, based on the findings in the 2015 Wildlife Action Plan (originally presented by the Ecosystem Management Team).

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

Natural Community Type Opportunity
Bog RelictMajor
Calcareous FenMajor
Caves and Subterranean CulturalMajor
Dry CliffMajor
Dry PrairieMajor
Dry-mesic PrairieMajor
Emergent MarshMajor
Ephemeral PondMajor
Floating-leaved MarshMajor
Floodplain ForestMajor
Mesic PrairieMajor
Oak OpeningMajor
Oak WoodlandMajor
Riverine Mud FlatMajor
Shrub CarrMajor
Small Lake--otherMajor
Southern Dry ForestMajor
Southern Dry-mesic ForestMajor
Southern Sedge MeadowMajor
Southern Tamarack Swamp (rich)Major
Surrogate GrasslandsMajor
Warmwater riversMajor
Warmwater streamsMajor
Wet PrairieMajor
Wet-mesic PrairieMajor
Coolwater streamsImportant
Lacustrine Mud FlatImportant
Large Lake--deep, hard, drainageImportant
Large Lake--deep, hard, seepageImportant
Large Lake--deep, soft, drainageImportant
Large Lake--deep, soft+, seepageImportant
Large Lake--shallow, hard, seepageImportant
Large Lake--shallow, soft, drainageImportant
Large Lake--shallow, soft, seepageImportant
Moist CliffImportant
Northern Hardwood SwampImportant
Northern Sedge MeadowImportant
Northern Wet-mesic ForestImportant
Patterned PeatlandImportant
Riverine Impoundment - ReservoirsImportant
Small Lake--hard, bogImportant
Southern Hardwood SwampImportant
Southern Mesic ForestImportant
Spring Pond, Lake--SpringImportant
Springs and Spring Runs (Hard)Important
Springs and Spring Runs (Soft)Important
Submergent MarshImportant
Wild Rice MarshImportant
Alder ThicketPresent
Coldwater streamsPresent
Conifer PlantationPresent
Eastern Red-cedar ThicketPresent
Forested SeepPresent
Northern Dry Mesic--late seralPresent
Poor FenPresent
Riverine Lake - PondPresent
Sand PrairiePresent

General opportunities

General management opportunities 1

Although large portions of the Southeast Glacial Plains are now intensively developed agricultural or urban-industrial lands, there are major opportunities to maintain natural communities and provide critical habitat for many native species. Opportunities for managing on a larger scale are limited to a few areas.

The Kettle Moraine region features the least developed uplands in the entire landscape, much of it within the units of the Kettle Moraine State Forest (KMSF). Collectively, the KMSF arguably comprises the largest and most ecologically important public landholding in this part of the state. The Northern Unit of the KMSF features extensive upland forests, conifer and ash swamps, lakes, springs, marshes, Ephemeral Ponds and significant stretches of the Milwaukee River and its tributaries. This area is now southeastern Wisconsin's major breeding site for forest interior species, especially birds. There are opportunities here to develop, maintain and enlarge blocks of contiguous forested habitat that include large patches of older mesic and oak-dominated forests, patches of young forest, dense brush and areas where high contrast edge has been reduced.

The Southern Unit of the KMSF is a major repository of rare and diminished natural communities, especially oak savannas and woodlands, wet prairies, fens, sedge meadows and relict bogs. Each of these is a high priority for conservation because they are rare on state or global levels, include the best remaining occurrences and/or support many rare native plants and animals. Wisconsin's largest native grassland protection and restoration project, the Scuppernong River Habitat Area, is located within the KMSF - Southern Unit. Fire suppression, successional processes and tree planting have created blocks of forest in the Southern Unit of the KMSF that are now large enough to provide critical nesting habitat for forest interior species. Determining where to maintain such semi-natural habitats versus where to actively restore the globally rare savanna and woodland communities can be challenging and controversial, even where the protection and maintenance of biodiversity is a primary management objective.

Some wetlands in the Southeast Glacial Plains are large, in good condition and provide critical habitat for a host of sensitive species including large populations of breeding and migratory waterbirds, as well as other wetland inhabitants. Emergent marsh (including Horicon Marsh, the Upper Midwest's largest cat-tail marsh) is especially well-represented, but sedge meadow, calcareous fen, wet prairie and tamarack swamp are also important. The large complex of sedge meadow, marsh and wet prairie associated with the White and Puchyan rivers is also outstanding in terms of size and quality. The Lower Wolf River corridor features the most extensive forested floodplain in eastern Wisconsin and one of the largest emergent marshes.

The Mukwonago River watershed is the most intact watershed in this Ecological Landscape, as it features a spring-fed river system supporting a high diversity of fishes and aquatic invertebrates, extensive and floristically rich wetlands and is associated with remnant rare natural communities such as tallgrass prairie, calcareous fen, oak openings, oak woodland and relict bogs. Many rare species have been documented here. Private and public partners are working to protect, manage and restore many components of this watershed.

Lakes are concentrated in several areas, sometimes in association with end moraines, other times occupying glacial lakebeds and outwash channels. Shallow lakes are well-represented, and some of these are associated with extensive wetlands of marsh, sedge meadow and shrub-carr. Noteworthy warmwater streams include the Wolf, Mukwonago (some of the upper stretches are classified as "Coolwater"), Rock, Crawfish, Sugar, Milwaukee and Bark rivers. Most lakes here are now heavily developed.

Miscellaneous features of significance include southern Wisconsin's westernmost stands of mesic maple-beech forest, hardwood swamps, bog relicts and scattered surrogate grasslands. The southern extremities of the Niagara Escarpment occur here and provide habitat for rare invertebrates and plants, as well as the largest bat hibernaculum in the Upper Midwest.

1. The text presented here is a summarized version of a longer section developed for the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.


Southeast Glacial Plains Landtype Associations

Landtype Associations (LTAs) are units of the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units (NHFEU), a hierarchical ecological land classification system. LTAs are much smaller than Ecological Landscapes, ranging in size from 10,000 and 300,000 acres. In Wisconsin, they are usually based on glacial features like individual moraines or outwash plains. LTAs can be very useful for planning at finer scales within an Ecological Landscape.

The following are the LTAs associated with the Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape. The Southeast Glacial Plains LTA map [PDF] can be used to locate these LTAs. Clicking on an LTA in the list below will open a data table for that LTA in PDF format. Descriptions are included, where available.

Last Revised: January 23, 2012
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition