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For information on Wisconsin's Ecological Landscapes, contact:
Andy Stoltman

Western Prairie Ecological Landscape

Download the Western Prairie chapter [PDF] of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin. This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the ecological and socioeconomic conditions for the Western Prairie. It also identifies important planning and management considerations and suggests management opportunities that are compatible with the ecology of the landscape. The tabs below provide additional information.

Landscape at a Glance

Physical & Biotic Environment


1,090 square miles (697,633 acres), representing 1.9% of the land area of the State of Wisconsin. It is the third smallest Ecological Landscape in the state; however, this Ecological Landscape (like the Northwest Lowlands) is part of a larger ecoregion that extends west into Minnesota.


Typical of southern Wisconsin; mean growing season of 145 days, mean annual temperature is 43.7 deg. F, mean annual precipitation is 32.1, and mean annual snowfall is 45.4 inches. The climate and topography was favorable to frequent fires that resulted in prairie vegetation occurring in almost a third of the area prior to Euro-American times. The length of the growing season, adequate precipitation, and favorable temperatures make the climate favorable for agriculture, which is prevalent here.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Bedrock was deposited during the Paleozoic Era (including the Cambrian and Ordovician Periods), and is dominantly marine sandstone and dolomite. Precambrian igneous and metamorphic bedrock lies below the Paleozoic deposits. The walls of the Apple River Canyon feature exposures of Cambrian sandstone, Cambrian shale, and Cambrian and Ordovician dolomites. Similar exposures occur along the lower Kinnickinnic River, below the city of River Falls.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Geology & Landforms

The Landscape is entirely glaciated. Major landforms are rolling till plain, with end moraine in the northwest and small areas of outwash.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Soils are predominantly formed in loamy till glacial deposits, while some are in outwash. A loess cap of aeolian silt is 6 to 48 inches thick over the surface. The dominant soil is well drained and loamy with a silt loam surface, moderate permeability, and moderate available water capacity.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


The Lower St. Croix River forms the western boundary of this Ecological Landscape (however, note that this Ecological Landscape is part of a larger ecological region, Subsection 222 Md, which extends west into Minnesota). Other important though much smaller rivers include the Apple, Kinnickinnic, and Willow. Most of the rivers drain westward to the St. Croix, with several draining south directly into the Mississippi, and a few flowing southeast to the Chippewa. Inland lakes, mostly seepage lakes and ponds, are most common in the northwestern part of the Landscape, in an area known informally as Wisconsin's "Prairie Pothole Region". There are multiple dams on the Willow River, and the Kinnickinnic has been dammed at River Falls. Many wetlands have been lost or severely altered by agricultural activities, which have been widespread and intensive in this productive Landscape.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Current Landcover

Almost half of the current land cover is agricultural crops and about one third of the area is grasslands, with smaller amounts of forest. open water, open wetlands, and urban areas. The major forest types are maple-basswood and oak-hickory, with lesser amounts of lowland hardwoods. Native coniferous forests are rare, and are limited to a few tamarack swamps and small scattered stands of pine on steep rocky slopes.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

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Socioeconomic Conditions
(based on data from St. Croix and Pierce counties)


120,708, 2.2% of the state total

Population Density

77 persons/ sq. mile

Per Capita Income


Important Economic Sectors

Government (14.6%); tourism-related (12.6%); manufacturing (non-wood) (11.6%); and retail trade (10.2%) sectors provided the most jobs in 2007. Agriculture and urban development affect the natural resources of this Ecological Landscape the most.

Public Ownership

Only three percent of the Western Prairie is in public ownership, much of it associated with the St. Croix, Kinnickinnic, and Willow rivers. Federal lands include the southern end of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway and several Federal Waterfowl Production Areas. State-owned lands include Wildlife Areas, Parks, Fishery Areas and Natural Areas. Examples include St. Croix Islands and Cylon Marsh State Wildlife Areas, Kinnickinnic and Willow River State Parks, and Apple River Canyon State Natural Area. A map showing public land ownership (county, state, and federal) and private lands enrolled in the Forest Tax Programs in this Ecological Landscape can be found at the end of this chapter.

Other Notable Ownerships

The Kinnickinnic River Land Trust has been actively protecting lands in northwestern Pierce County. Several other NGOs have been protecting lands along the St. Croix River, in Polk and St. Croix Counties. Some of these projects have been the result of successful public-private partnerships.

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Considerations for Planning & Management

Agriculture is the dominant land use, but in recent years residential development has increased dramatically in the western part of the Ecological Landscape along and near the St. Croix River. Many new residents commute to the Twin Cities for work. Public lands are limited, making management at large scales difficult. Prairie remnants are few and most are isolated. Where possible, these should be embedded within surrogate grasslands such as Waterfowl Production Areas, Conservation Reserve Program lands, or other open covertypes to meet the needs of wide-ranging grassland wildlife.

The lower St. Croix River supports many rare aquatic species, but recreational pressure is high and increasing, and residential development is occurring in most areas not yet protected as part of the National Scenic Riverway. Maintaining or restoring high water quality and protecting instream and adjoining wetland and terrestrial habitats are conservation priorities for this Ecological Landscape.

Residents along the Kinnickinnic River in Pierce County have worked together and received grants to restore and manage prairie and savanna remnants, and protect populations of rare species. Similar partnerships have worked in areas along the St. Croix River, and could serve as models for conservation work elsewhere.  Learn more about management opportunities from the chapter [PDF]

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Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Species of Greatest Conservation Need

The following species are listed according to their probability of occurring in the Western Prairie Ecological Landscape, based on the findings in Wisconsin's 2015 Wildlife Action Plan.

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

Pickerel FrogLithobates palustris2
Four-toed SalamanderHemidactylium scutatum1

Ants, wasps, and beesScore
American Bumble BeeBombus pensylvanicus2
Rusty-patched Bumble BeeBombus affinis2
Yellow Bumble BeeBombus fervidus1

Aquatic and terrestrial snailsScore
Broad-banded ForestsnailAllogona profunda2
Wing SnaggletoothGastrocopta procera2
Black StriateStriatura ferrea1
Brilliant GranuleGuppya sterkii1
Cherrystone DropHendersonia occulta1
Ribbed StriateStriatura exigua1
Smooth CoilHelicodiscus singleyanus1
Trumpet ValloniaVallonia parvula1

A Crawling Water BeetleHaliplus apostolicus3
A Minute Moss BeetleOchthebius lineatus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleColymbetes exaratus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleIlybius confusus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleDytiscus alaskanus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleLiodessus obscurellus3
Northern Barrens Tiger BeetleCicindela patruela patruela2
Sandy Stream Tiger BeetleEllipsoptera macra2
A Colaspis Leaf BeetleColaspis suggona1
A Leaf BeetlePachybrachis peccans1
A Leaf BeetleCryptocephalus cuneatus1
A Pear-shaped WeevilCoelocephalapion decoloratum1
A Water Scavenger BeetleAgabetes acuductus1
Hairy-necked Tiger BeetleCicindela hirticollis hirticollis1
Virginia Big-headed Tiger BeetleTetracha virginica1

BobolinkDolichonyx oryzivorus3
DickcisselSpiza americana3
Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magna3
Grasshopper SparrowAmmodramus savannarum3
Henslow's SparrowAmmodramus henslowii3
Least FlycatcherEmpidonax minimus3
Loggerhead ShrikeLanius ludovicianus3
Prothonotary WarblerProtonotaria citrea3
Red-headed WoodpeckerMelanerpes erythrocephalus3
Vesper SparrowPooecetes gramineus3
Western MeadowlarkSturnella neglecta3
American BitternBotaurus lentiginosus2
American WoodcockScolopax minor2
Black TernChlidonias niger2
Cerulean WarblerSetophaga cerulea2
Great EgretArdea alba2
King RailRallus elegans2
Le Conte's SparrowAmmodramus leconteii2
Purple MartinProgne subis2
Red-necked GrebePodiceps grisegena2
Rusty BlackbirdEuphagus carolinus2
Short-eared OwlAsio flammeus2
Upland SandpiperBartramia longicauda2
Yellow-headed BlackbirdXanthocephalus xanthocephalus2
Acadian FlycatcherEmpidonax virescens1
Bell's VireoVireo bellii1
Brewer's BlackbirdEuphagus cyanocephalus1
Common NighthawkChordeiles minor1
Eastern Whip-poor-willAntrostomus vociferus1
Golden-winged WarblerVermivora chrysoptera1
Hooded WarblerSetophaga citrina1
Least BitternIxobrychus exilis1
Red-shouldered HawkButeo lineatus1
Whooping CraneGrus americana1

Butterflies and mothsScore
A Noctuid MothBagisara gulnare1
Cross Line SkipperPolites origenes1
Gray CopperLycaena dione1
Leadplant Flower MothSchinia lucens1
Regal FritillarySpeyeria idalia1
Whitney's Underwing MothCatocala whitneyi1

A Fingernet CaddisflyWormaldia moesta2

Dragonflies and damselfliesScore
Sioux (Sand) SnaketailOphiogomphus smithi3
Plains EmeraldSomatochlora ensigera1
Spatterdock DarnerRhionaeschna mutata1
Springwater DancerArgia plana1

Crystal DarterCrystallaria asprella3
Black BuffaloIctiobus niger2
Blue SuckerCycleptus elongatus2
GoldeyeHiodon alosoides2
Lake SturgeonAcipenser fulvescens2
Mud DarterEtheostoma asprigene2
River RedhorseMoxostoma carinatum2
American EelAnguilla rostrata1
Gilt DarterPercina evides1
PaddlefishPolyodon spathula1
Pallid ShinerHybopsis amnis1
Shoal ChubMacrhybopsis hyostoma1
Skipjack HerringAlosa chrysochloris1

Grasshoppers and alliesScore
Club-horned GrasshopperAeropedellus clavatus3
Plains Yellow-winged GrasshopperArphia simplex3
A Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus foedus2
Ash-brown GrasshopperTrachyrhachys kiowa2
Blue-legged GrasshopperMelanoplus flavidus2
Gladston's Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus gladstoni2
Green-streak GrasshopperHesperotettix viridis2
Mermiria GrasshopperMermiria bivittata2
Obscure GrasshopperOpeia obscura2
Seaside GrasshopperTrimerotropis maritima2
Short-winged GrasshopperDichromorpha viridis2
Speckled Rangeland GrasshopperArphia conspersa2
Spotted-winged GrasshopperOrphulella pelidna2
Bruner's Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus bruneri1
Forest LocustMelanoplus islandicus1
Grizzly Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus punctulatus1
Handsome GrasshopperSyrbula admirabilis1
Huckleberry Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus fasciatus1
Scudder's Short-winged GrasshopperMelanoplus scudderi1
Showy GrasshopperHesperotettix speciosus1
Stone's LocustMelanoplus stonei1
Velvet-striped GrasshopperEritettix simplex1

Leafhoppers and true bugsScore
A LeafhopperDriotura robusta2
An Issid PlanthopperFitchiella robertsonii2
Prairie LeafhopperPolyamia dilata2
Yellow Loosestrife LeafhopperErythroneura carbonata2
A LeafhopperMemnonia panzeri1
A LeafhopperAttenuipyga vanduzeei1
A LeafhopperParaphlepsius altus1
A LeafhopperParaphlepsius maculosus1
A LeafhopperPrairiana kansana1
A LeafhopperFlexamia prairiana1
A PlanthopperMyndus ovatus1
An Issid PlanthopperBruchomorpha extensa1
Red-tailed Prairie LeafhopperAflexia rubranura1

Little Brown BatMyotis lucifugus3
Big Brown BatEptesicus fuscus2
Franklin's Ground SquirrelPoliocitellus franklinii2
Eastern PipistrellePerimyotis subflavus1
Northern Long-eared BatMyotis septentrionalis1
Prairie Deer MousePeromyscus maniculatus bairdii1
Silver-haired BatLasionycteris noctivagans1
Water ShrewSorex palustris1

A Flat-headed MayflyMacdunnoa persimplex2
A Cleft-footed Minnow MayflyMetretopus borealis1
A Flat-headed MayflyMaccaffertium pulchellum1
A Small Minnow MayflyPlauditus cestus1
A Spiny Crawler MayflyEurylophella aestiva1
American Sand Burrowing MayflyDolania americana1
Pecatonica River MayflyAcanthametropus pecatonica1
Wisconsin Small Square-gilled MayflyCercobrachys lilliei1

Mussels and clamsScore
ButterflyEllipsaria lineolata3
Purple WartybackCyclonaias tuberculata3
SnuffboxEpioblasma triquetra3
SpectaclecaseCumberlandia monodonta3
BuckhornTritogonia verrucosa2
Elephant EarElliptio crassidens2
ElktoeAlasmidonta marginata2
FawnsfootTruncilla donaciformis2
Flat FloaterAnodonta suborbiculata2
Higgins EyeLampsilis higginsii2
MapleleafQuadrula quadrula2
MonkeyfaceTheliderma metanevra2
Rock PocketbookArcidens confragosus2
Salamander MusselSimpsonaias ambigua2
WartybackQuadrula nodulata2
Winged MapleleafQuadrula fragosa2
EbonyshellFusconaia ebena1
SheepnosePlethobasus cyphyus1
WashboardMegalonaias nervosa1

Timber RattlesnakeCrotalus horridus3
North American RacerColuber constrictor2
Prairie SkinkPlestiodon septentrionalis2
Blanding's TurtleEmydoidea blandingii1
Wood TurtleGlyptemys insculpta1

A Common StoneflyAttaneuria ruralis2

Rare plants

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

Scores: 3 = "significantly associated," 2 = "moderately associated," and 1 = "minimally associated."

Scientific Name Common Name Score
Anemone caroliniana Carolina Anemone 3
Astragalus crassicarpus Ground-plum 3
Liatris punctata var. nebraskana Dotted Blazing Star 3
Minuartia dawsonensis Rock Stitchwort 3
Oenothera serrulata Yellow Evening Primrose 3
Orobanche ludoviciana Louisiana Broomrape 3
Arnoglossum reniforme Great Indian-plantain 2
Besseya bullii Kitten Tails 2
Carex torreyi Torrey's Sedge 2
Catabrosa aquatica Brook Grass 2
Crotalaria sagittalis Arrow-headed Rattle-box 2
Cuscuta coryli Hazel Dodder 2
Cuscuta pentagona Field Dodder 2
Dalea villosa var. villosa Silky Prairie-clover 2
Glycyrrhiza lepidota Wild Licorice 2
Lespedeza leptostachya Prairie Bush Clover 2
Packera plattensis Prairie Ragwort 2
Pediomelum esculentum Prairie Turnip 2
Strophostyles leiosperma Small-flowered Woolly Bean 2
Asclepias lanuginosa Woolly Milkweed 1
Cirsium hillii Hill's Thistle 1
Nothocalais cuspidata Prairie False-dandelion 1
Phemeranthus rugospermus Prairie Fame-flower 1
Poa paludigena Bog Bluegrass 1
Prenanthes aspera Rough Rattlesnake-root 1
Primula mistassinica Bird's-eye Primrose 1
Scutellaria parvula var. parvula Small Skullcap 1
Tephroseris palustris Marsh Ragwort 1
Trillium nivale Snow Trillium 1

Community opportunities

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Natural community management opportunities

The Western Prairie Ecological Landscape contains opportunities to manage for the following natural communities, based on the findings in the 2015 Wildlife Action Plan (originally presented by the Ecosystem Management Team).

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

General opportunities

General management opportunities 1

Grassland management at multiple scales is a major opportunity in the Western Prairie. Small, scattered remnants of native prairie exist here along with substantial areas of "surrogate grassland" that now provide increasingly critical habitat for many grassland species, especially birds. The largest grassland management project in this Ecological Landscape is the Western Prairie Habitat Restoration Area in St. Croix and Polk counties. By managing at multiple scales, large blocks of surrogate grassland, unplowed prairie pastures, small native prairie remnants on bluffs or within rights-of-way and working agricultural lands can all play key roles in the conservation and restoration of the grassland ecosystem that historically covered most of this ecological landscape. Ponds and lakes border or are embedded within some of the areas with high grassland management potential; these add great value for species that nest near or over water and for migrants that use open wetlands and water.

The Lower St. Croix River supports an exceptionally high diversity of aquatic organisms, including fish, mussels and other invertebrates. Many rare species have been documented here, and several of the mussels are globally rare. The river's floodplain contains good examples of emergent marsh, wet prairie and floodplain forest. The forested slopes of the St. Croix Valley contain rich mesic hardwood forests, dry oak forests and a few stands of natural white pine. Remnant bluff prairies and oak savannas occur on the uppermost slopes above the St. Croix. Migratory bird use of the St. Croix River valley is high, and the river corridor also provides nesting and wintering habitat for many common and rare birds, including species of conservation concern. Protecting the hydrology and water quality of the St. Croix and its tributaries is critical, and assessing areas of high value to birds and other species is an important step in protecting and properly managing the best habitats.

Other important management opportunities include the Kinnickinnic River Corridor; the Apple River Canyon; scattered prairie, savanna and forest remnants (including mesic, dry-mesic and dry forests); coldwater and coolwater streams; and miscellaneous opportunities to protect more isolated populations of rare species and features not covered by the previously mentioned categories.

1. The text presented here is a summarized version of a longer section developed for the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.


Western Prairie Landtype Associations

Landtype Associations (LTAs) are units of the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units (NHFEU), a hierarchical ecological land classification system. LTAs are much smaller than Ecological Landscapes, ranging in size from 10,000 and 300,000 acres. In Wisconsin, they are usually based on glacial features like individual moraines or outwash plains. LTAs can be very useful for planning at finer scales within an Ecological Landscape.

The following are the LTAs associated with the Western Prairie Ecological Landscape. The Western Prairie LTA map [PDF] can be used to locate these LTAs. Clicking on an LTA in the list below will open a data table for that LTA in PDF format. Descriptions are included, where available.

Last Revised: July 16, 2020

Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition