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Andy Stoltman

Forest Transition Ecological Landscape

Download the Forest Transition chapter [PDF] of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin. This chapter provides a detailed assessment of the ecological and socioeconomic conditions for the Forest Transition. It also identifies important planning and management considerations and suggests management opportunities that are compatible with the ecology of the landscape. The tabs below provide additional information.

Landscape at a Glance

Physical & Biotic Environment


7,279 square miles (4,658,498 acres), representing 12.9% of the land area of the State, making it the fourth largest Ecological Landscape in the state.


Because this Ecological Landscape extends east-west across much of Wisconsin, the climate is variable. In addition, it straddles a major eco-climatic zone (the "Tension Zone) that runs southeast-northwest across the state. The mean growing season is 133 days, mean annual temperature is 41.9 deg. F, mean annual precipitation is 32.6, and mean annual snowfall is 50.2 inches. The growing season is long enough that agriculture is viable, although climatic conditions are not as favorable for many crops as they are in southern Wisconsin.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Throughout most of the Forest Transition, the uppermost layer of bedrock is Precambrian volcanic and metamorphic rock. Precambrian bedrock underlies the eastern portion of the Ecological Landscape, roughly east of U.S. Hwy. 13, and also underlies a small area at the far western end in Polk County. A large area in the west-central part is underlain by Cambrian sandstones with inclusions of dolomite and shale. A small area in Polk County is underlain by Ordovician dolomite.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Geology & Landforms

The Forest Transition was entirely glaciated. The central portion was formed by older glaciations, both Illinoian and pre-Illinoian, while the eastern and western portions are covered by deposits of the Wisconsin glaciation. Glacial till is the major type of material deposited throughout, and the prevalent landforms are till plains or moraines. Throughout the area, post-glacial erosion, stream cutting, and deposition formed floodplains, terraces, and swamps along major rivers. Wind-deposited silt material (loess) formed a layer 6 to 24 inches thick.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Most soils are non-calcareous, moderately well-drained sandy loams derived from glacial till, but there is considerable diversity in the range of soil attributes. The area includes sandy soils formed in outwash, as well as organic soils, and loam and silt loam soils on moraines. There are many areas with shallow soils. Drainage classes range from poorly drained to excessively drained. Density of the till is generally high enough to impede internal drainage, so there are many lakes and wetlands in most parts of the Forest Transition. Soils throughout the Ecological Landscape have silt loam surface deposits formed in aeolian loess, about 6 to 24 inches thick in much of the area.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]


Major river systems draining this Ecological Landscape include the Wolf, Wisconsin, Black, Chippewa, and St. Croix.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

Current Landcover

Landcover is highly variable by subsection, dominant landform, and major land use. The eastern part of the Ecological Landscape remains heavily forested, the central portion is dominated by agricultural uses (with most of the historically abundant mesic forest cleared), and the west end is a mixture of forest, lakes, and agricultural land.  Learn more from the chapter [PDF]

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Socioeconomic Conditions
(based on data from Washburn, Polk, Barron, Chippewa, Taylor, Clark, Wood, Marathon, Lincoln, Langlade, Menominee, Shawano, Wood, Portage, and Waupaca counties)


639,625, 11.4% of the state total

Population Density

49 persons/ sq. mile

Per Capita Income


Important Economic Sectors

Government, manufacturing (non-wood), health care & social services, and retail trade sectors provided the highest number of jobs in 2007. Agriculture (including commercial ginseng farms) is now the dominant land use in many areas that historically supported mesic forest. Timber and paper production, and recreational uses are highly significant in some parts of the Forest Transition.

Public Ownership

About 88% of all forested land is privately-owned while 12% belongs to the state, counties or municipalities. Portions of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest); scattered state-owned lands include state parks, wildlife areas, fishery areas, and natural areas; and portions of the Barron, Burnett, Chippewa, Clark, Eau Claire, Langlade, Lincoln, Marathon, Polk, Rusk, Sawyer, Taylor, and Washburn County Forests. A map showing public land ownership (county, state, and federal) and private lands enrolled in the Forest Tax Programs in this Ecological Landscape can be found at the end of this chapter.

Other Notable Ownerships

A large part of the Menominee Indian Reservation is in the Forest Transition and these tribal lands (along with some the adjoining publicly-owned forests) constitute the largest block of contiguous forest in this Ecological Landscape.

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Considerations for Planning & Management

The Forest Transition stretches east to west across most of Wisconsin north of the Tension Zone and is quite heterogeneous. This Ecological Landscape has lost over half of its historic forests (though this is highly variable in different areas), and overall, is one of the most deforested landscapes north of the Tension Zone. Areas to the east remain heavily forested, the central areas are open and intensively farmed, and the western end is a mosaic of agricultural land, forest, and recreational lands. West of the Green Bay Lobe Stagnation Moraine Subsection (see glossary - this term comes from the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units) this Ecological Landscape is highly fragmented, limiting most forest and grassland habitats and large-scale management opportunities. Large power dams occur on several of the major rivers, including the Wisconsin, Chippewa and St. Croix. Public ownership is uneven and concentrated along several of the larger rivers, as well as in some of the more heavily forested areas.  Learn more about management opportunities from the chapter [PDF]

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Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Species of Greatest Conservation Need

The following species are listed according to their probability of occurring in the Forest Transition Ecological Landscape, based on the findings in Wisconsin's 2015 Wildlife Action Plan.

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

Four-toed SalamanderHemidactylium scutatum3
Mink FrogLithobates septentrionalis1
Pickerel FrogLithobates palustris1

Ants, wasps, and beesScore
Confusing Bumble BeeBombus perplexus2
Indiscriminate Cuckoo Bumble BeeBombus insularis2
Rusty-patched Bumble BeeBombus affinis1
Yellow Bumble BeeBombus fervidus1
Yellowbanded Bumble BeeBombus terricola1

Aquatic and terrestrial snailsScore
Cross VertigoVertigo modesta2
Bright GlyphGlyphyalinia wheatleyi1
Cherrystone DropHendersonia occulta1

A Crawling Water BeetleHaliplus apostolicus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleIlybius angustior3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleLioporeus triangularis3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleRhantus sericans3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleIlybius confusus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHydrocolus rubyae3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleAgabus discolor3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHygrotus marklini3
A Water Scavenger BeetleHelophorus latipenis3
A Water Scavenger BeetleAgabetes acuductus3
Cantrall's Bog BeetleLiodessus cantralli3
Sylvan Hygrotus Diving BeetleHygrotus sylvanus3
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHygrotus compar2
A Predaceous Diving BeetleHygrotus farctus2
Robust Dubiraphian Riffle BeetleDubiraphia robusta2
A Leaf BeetleDistigmoptera impennata1
A Minute Moss BeetleHydraena angulicollis1
A Predaceous Diving BeetleColymbetes exaratus1
A Riffle BeetleStenelmis antennalis1
A Straight-snouted WeevilEutrichapion huron1
A Water Scavenger BeetleCymbiodyta toddi1
Ghost Tiger BeetleEllipsoptera lepida1
Hairy-necked Tiger BeetleCicindela hirticollis hirticollis1
Northern Barrens Tiger BeetleCicindela patruela patruela1
Sandy Stream Tiger BeetleEllipsoptera macra1

American BitternBotaurus lentiginosus3
American WoodcockScolopax minor3
Black TernChlidonias niger3
BobolinkDolichonyx oryzivorus3
Brewer's BlackbirdEuphagus cyanocephalus3
Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magna3
Eastern Whip-poor-willAntrostomus vociferus3
Golden-winged WarblerVermivora chrysoptera3
Greater Prairie-ChickenTympanuchus cupido3
Least FlycatcherEmpidonax minimus3
Red-headed WoodpeckerMelanerpes erythrocephalus3
Red-shouldered HawkButeo lineatus3
Vesper SparrowPooecetes gramineus3
Cerulean WarblerSetophaga cerulea2
DickcisselSpiza americana2
Evening GrosbeakCoccothraustes vespertinus2
Grasshopper SparrowAmmodramus savannarum2
Henslow's SparrowAmmodramus henslowii2
Hooded WarblerSetophaga citrina2
Le Conte's SparrowAmmodramus leconteii2
Northern GoshawkAccipiter gentilis2
Rusty BlackbirdEuphagus carolinus2
Upland SandpiperBartramia longicauda2
Western MeadowlarkSturnella neglecta2
Yellow RailCoturnicops noveboracensis2
Acadian FlycatcherEmpidonax virescens1
Black-backed WoodpeckerPicoides arcticus1
Black-crowned Night-HeronNycticorax nycticorax1
Common NighthawkChordeiles minor1
Least BitternIxobrychus exilis1
Loggerhead ShrikeLanius ludovicianus1
Long-eared OwlAsio otus1
Olive-sided FlycatcherContopus cooperi1
Purple MartinProgne subis1
Ruby-crowned KingletRegulus calendula1
Short-eared OwlAsio flammeus1
Swainson's ThrushCatharus ustulatus1
Yellow-headed BlackbirdXanthocephalus xanthocephalus1

Butterflies and mothsScore
Bina Flower MothSchinia bina1
Doll's MeroloncheAcronicta dolli1
Gray CopperLycaena dione1
Midwestern Fen BuckmothHemileuca nevadensis ssp. 31
Regal FritillarySpeyeria idalia1
Semirelict Underwing MothCatocala semirelicta1
West Virginia WhitePieris virginiensis1

A Fingernet CaddisflyWormaldia moesta3
A Giant Casemaker CaddisflyBanksiola dossuaria3

Dragonflies and damselfliesScore
Sioux (Sand) SnaketailOphiogomphus smithi3
Clamp-tipped EmeraldSomatochlora tenebrosa1
Delta-spotted SpiketailCordulegaster diastatops1
Extra-striped SnaketailOphiogomphus anomalus1
Forcipate EmeraldSomatochlora forcipata1
Incurvate EmeraldSomatochlora incurvata1
Mottled DarnerAeshna clepsydra1
Plains EmeraldSomatochlora ensigera1
Pronghorn ClubtailGomphus graslinellus1
Spatterdock DarnerRhionaeschna mutata1
Sphagnum SpriteNehalennia gracilis1
St. Croix SnaketailOphiogomphus susbehcha1

Black RedhorseMoxostoma duquesnei3
Crystal DarterCrystallaria asprella3
Ozark MinnowNotropis nubilus3
Redfin ShinerLythrurus umbratilis3
Lake SturgeonAcipenser fulvescens2
Least DarterEtheostoma microperca2
American EelAnguilla rostrata1
Black BuffaloIctiobus niger1
Blue SuckerCycleptus elongatus1
Gilt DarterPercina evides1
Lake ChubsuckerErimyzon sucetta1
Longear SunfishLepomis megalotis1
Mud DarterEtheostoma asprigene1
Pugnose ShinerNotropis anogenus1
River RedhorseMoxostoma carinatum1

A Non-biting MidgePseudodiamesa pertinax3

Grasshoppers and alliesScore
Clear-winged GrasshopperCamnula pellucida2
Crackling Forest GrasshopperTrimerotropis verruculata2
Huckleberry Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus fasciatus2
Seaside GrasshopperTrimerotropis maritima2
Speckled Rangeland GrasshopperArphia conspersa2
A Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus foedus1
Blue-legged GrasshopperMelanoplus flavidus1
Bruner's Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus bruneri1
Club-horned GrasshopperAeropedellus clavatus1
Forest LocustMelanoplus islandicus1
Grizzly Spur-throat GrasshopperMelanoplus punctulatus1
Rocky Mountain Sprinkled LocustChloealtis abdominalis1
Spotted-winged GrasshopperOrphulella pelidna1
Stone's LocustMelanoplus stonei1

Leafhoppers and true bugsScore
A LeafhopperParaphlepsius maculosus1
A LeafhopperLimotettix pseudosphagneticus1

Big Brown BatEptesicus fuscus3
Little Brown BatMyotis lucifugus3
Franklin's Ground SquirrelPoliocitellus franklinii2
Northern Flying SquirrelGlaucomys sabrinus2
Northern Long-eared BatMyotis septentrionalis2
Silver-haired BatLasionycteris noctivagans2
Water ShrewSorex palustris2
Woodland Jumping MouseNapaeozapus insignis2
Woodland VoleMicrotus pinetorum2
American MartenMartes americana1
Eastern PipistrellePerimyotis subflavus1
Prairie Deer MousePeromyscus maniculatus bairdii1
Prairie VoleMicrotus ochrogaster1

A Small Minnow MayflyPlauditus cestus3
A Flat-headed MayflyMaccaffertium pulchellum2
A Flat-headed MayflyMacdunnoa persimplex2
A Small Minnow MayflyParacloeodes minutus2
American Sand Burrowing MayflyDolania americana2
A Common Burrower MayflyPentagenia vittigera1
A Spiny Crawler MayflyEurylophella aestiva1
Wisconsin Small Square-gilled MayflyCercobrachys lilliei1

Mussels and clamsScore
ButterflyEllipsaria lineolata3
ElktoeAlasmidonta marginata3
Purple WartybackCyclonaias tuberculata3
SnuffboxEpioblasma triquetra3
SpectaclecaseCumberlandia monodonta3
BuckhornTritogonia verrucosa2
Elephant EarElliptio crassidens2
EllipseVenustaconcha ellipsiformis2
FawnsfootTruncilla donaciformis2
Higgins EyeLampsilis higginsii2
MonkeyfaceTheliderma metanevra2
Salamander MusselSimpsonaias ambigua2
WartybackQuadrula nodulata2
Winged MapleleafQuadrula fragosa2
MapleleafQuadrula quadrula1
Slippershell MusselAlasmidonta viridis1

Wood TurtleGlyptemys insculpta3
Blanding's TurtleEmydoidea blandingii2
Prairie SkinkPlestiodon septentrionalis2

Rare plants

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

Scores: 3 = "significantly associated," 2 = "moderately associated," and 1 = "minimally associated."

Scientific Name Common Name Score
Juglans cinerea Butternut 3
Myosotis laxa Small Forget-me-not 3
Najas gracillima Thread-like Naiad 3
Potamogeton oakesianus Oakes' Pondweed 3
Scirpus georgianus Georgia Bulrush 3
Stuckenia filiformis ssp. alpina Northern Slender Pondweed 3
Stuckenia filiformis ssp. occidentalis Slender Pondweed 3
Amerorchis rotundifolia Round-leaved Orchis 2
Artemisia dracunculus Dragon Wormwood 2
Boechera missouriensis Missouri Rock-cress 2
Botrychium minganense Mingan's Moonwort 2
Callitriche hermaphroditica Autumnal Water-starwort 2
Carex merritt-fernaldii Fernald's Sedge 2
Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin Northern Yellow Lady's-slipper 2
Eleocharis quadrangulata Square-stem Spike-rush 2
Eleocharis quinqueflora Few-flowered Spike-rush 2
Leucophysalis grandiflora Large-flowered Ground-cherry 2
Malaxis monophyllos var. brachypoda White Adder's-mouth 2
Menegazzia terebrata Treeflute 2
Penstemon pallidus Pale Beardtongue 2
Potamogeton bicupulatus Snail-seed Pondweed 2
Potamogeton pulcher Spotted Pondweed 2
Potamogeton vaseyi Vasey's Pondweed 2
Schoenoplectus heterochaetus Slender Bulrush 2
Schoenoplectus torreyi Torrey's Bulrush 2
Scirpus pallidus Pale Bulrush 2
Vaccinium cespitosum Dwarf Bilberry 2
Valeriana uliginosa Marsh Valerian 2
Woodsia oregana ssp. cathcartiana Oregon Woodsia 2
Adlumia fungosa Climbing Fumitory 1
Asclepias ovalifolia Dwarf Milkweed 1
Botrychium mormo Little Goblin Moonwort 1
Cardamine maxima Large Toothwort 1
Carex prasina Drooping Sedge 1
Crotalaria sagittalis Arrow-headed Rattle-box 1
Cypripedium arietinum Ram's-head Lady's-slipper 1
Dryopteris expansa Spreading Woodfern 1
Elatine triandra Longstem Water-wort 1
Eleocharis flavescens var. olivacea Capitate Spike-rush 1
Eleocharis robbinsii Robbins' Spike-rush 1
Homalosorus pycnocarpos Glade Fern 1
Opuntia fragilis Brittle Prickly-pear 1
Phemeranthus rugospermus Prairie Fame-flower 1
Platanthera flava var. herbiola Pale Green Orchid 1
Poa paludigena Bog Bluegrass 1
Potamogeton diversifolius Water-thread Pondweed 1
Rotala ramosior Toothcup 1
Salix sericea Silky Willow 1
Sceptridium oneidense Blunt-lobe Grape-fern 1
Silene nivea Snowy Campion 1
Thaspium trifoliatum var. flavum Purple Meadow Parsnip 1
Triglochin palustris Slender Bog Arrow-grass 1
Valeriana edulis var. ciliata Hairy Valerian 1
Viola rostrata Long-spurred Violet 1

Community opportunities

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Natural community management opportunities

The Forest Transition Ecological Landscape contains opportunities to manage for the following natural communities, based on the findings in the 2015 Wildlife Action Plan (originally presented by the Ecosystem Management Team).

See the key to association scores [PDF] for complete definitions.

Natural Community Type Opportunity
Black Spruce SwampMajor
Coldwater streamsMajor
Coolwater streamsMajor
Northern Mesic Forest--late seralMajor
Northern Tamarack SwampMajor
Northern Wet ForestMajor
Northern Wet-mesic ForestMajor
Warmwater riversMajor
Warmwater streamsMajor
Alder ThicketImportant
Bedrock GladeImportant
Conifer PlantationImportant
Dry CliffImportant
Emergent MarshImportant
Ephemeral PondImportant
Floating-leaved MarshImportant
Floodplain ForestImportant
Glaciere Talus (Felsenmeer)Important
Lacustrine Mud FlatImportant
Large Lake--deep, hard, seepageImportant
Large Lake--deep, soft+, seepageImportant
Large Lake--shallow, hard, seepageImportant
Large Lake--shallow, soft, seepageImportant
Moist CliffImportant
Northern Dry Mesic--late seralImportant
Northern Hardwood SwampImportant
Northern Sedge MeadowImportant
Open BogImportant
Poor FenImportant
Riverine Impoundment - ReservoirsImportant
Riverine Mud FlatImportant
Shrub CarrImportant
Small Lake--hard, bogImportant
Small Lake--soft, bogImportant
Spring Pond, Lake--SpringImportant
Springs and Spring Runs (Hard)Important
Springs and Spring Runs (Soft)Important
Submergent MarshImportant
Surrogate GrasslandsImportant
Forested SeepPresent
Large Lake--deep, hard, drainagePresent
Large Lake--deep, soft, drainagePresent
Large Lake--shallow, soft, drainagePresent
Riverine Lake - PondPresent
Small Lake--otherPresent
Southern Dry-mesic ForestPresent
Southern Mesic ForestPresent
Southern Sedge MeadowPresent
Southern Tamarack Swamp (rich)Present
Wild Rice MarshPresent

General opportunities

General management opportunities 1

Once almost completely forested, the Forest Transition's largest blocks of forests are now limited to certain areas. Portions of two large forested areas, the Lakewood-Laona District of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF) and the Menominee Indian Reservation, comprise the easternmost and most densely forested end of the landscape. These are largely mesic forests, and the forests of the Menominee Reservation have retained some old forest attributes, including large trees, coarse woody debris and multi-layered canopies. Unlike many other parts of Wisconsin, eastern hemlock remains abundant in some areas, and both it and northern white cedar can be found reproducing here. These forests provide important habitats that are rare or absent elsewhere and offer excellent opportunities for monitoring and research.

Roughly two hundred miles west of the Menominee Reservation, at the westernmost end of the landscape, forests also occur in large blocks. These very different forests are generally less contiguous and are largely dry-mesic. They can contain a strong red and white oak component, and scattered areas contain significant amounts of white pine. These forests offer opportunities to identify high conservation value areas, reduce fragmentation, are known to support rare forest interior birds and may be important for long-term monitoring since they can contain species at their northernmost range limits.

Much of this landscape is now quite open and dominated by intensive agricultural use. A few open areas of surrogate grassland (non-native grasses) and adjacent wetlands embedded within agricultural lands are large enough to support declining grassland birds, including the WI Threatened Greater Prairie Chicken. There are opportunities to maintain, enlarge and connect these habitats to better support area sensitive species. However, other open areas provide re-forestation opportunities to increase the size of forested blocks, provide habitat, improve water quality, reduce hard edge and help local economies over the long-term.

Protecting undeveloped lakes, ponds and streams is a major opportunity. Lakes and wetlands on the CNNF associated with the Green Bay Glacial Lobe can be somewhat calcareous, and some of these alkaline waters and wetlands support rare or otherwise unusual plants. The Polk County portion of the landscape contains numerous lakes associated with the St. Croix Moraine. Extensive wetlands, most of them forested, occur at the southern margins of several end moraines.

Maintaining intact river corridors is a major opportunity in the Forest Transition. A number of rivers cross the landscape from north to south, including the Wolf, Chippewa and St. Croix, all of which support high aquatic biodiversity and many rare species. Wetlands and forests forming the corridors of these rivers are used heavily by migratory birds and may be important for other species traveling between northern and southern Wisconsin. Habitats such as floodplain forest and marsh are better represented along the large rivers than elsewhere in the landscape.

Bedrock exposures, though localized and uncommon, can provide specialized habitats. Significant outcroppings of Precambrian rock in the Forest Transition include exposures of granites, quartzite and basalt as cliffs, glades and talus slopes in certain areas. Cambrian sandstone exposures occur at a few locations such as the south central part of the landscape.

1. The text presented here is a summarized version of a longer section developed for the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.


Forest Transition Landtype Associations

Landtype Associations (LTAs) are units of the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units (NHFEU), a hierarchical ecological land classification system. LTAs are much smaller than Ecological Landscapes, ranging in size from 10,000 and 300,000 acres. In Wisconsin, they are usually based on glacial features like individual moraines or outwash plains. LTAs can be very useful for planning at finer scales within an Ecological Landscape.

The following are the LTAs associated with the Forest Transition Ecological Landscape. The Forest Transition LTA map [PDF] can be used to locate these LTAs. Clicking on an LTA in the list below will open a data table for that LTA in PDF format. Descriptions are included, where available.

Last Revised: July 16, 2020

Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition