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Snail-seed Pondweed (Potamogeton bicupulatus)

Life history

Species overview

Snail-seed Pondweed (Potamogeton bicupulatus), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in acidic waters. Blooming occurs from June through October. The optimal identification period for this species is late July through late September.

Synonyms: Potamogeton diversifolius (pro parte), Potamogeton diversifolius var. trichophyllus


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Narrower leaves than P. diversifolius.
  • Flower characteristics: Inflorescence stalkless; spikes dimorphic: submerged spikes 1.5 to 7 mm, globular to ellipsoid; emergent spikes ellipsoid to cylindric, 3- to 14 mm.
  • Fruit characteristics: Achene greenish brown, papillate, 1 to 2 mm.
  • Leaf characteristics: Underwater leaves sessile,1.5 to 11 cm; floating leaves with petioles, up to 2 cm long, opposite.


  • Blooming phenology: June through October
  • Fruiting phenology:
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is late July through late September


  • Growth form: Aquatic forb-submergent
  • Vegetative reproduction: Rhizomatous
  • Life cycle: Perennial
  • Comments: Associated Species: Calamagrostis canadensis, Utricularia purpurea, Pontederia cordata.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Snail-seed Pondweed (Potamogeton bicupulatus). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Potamogeton bicupulatus in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusSC
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS2
Global RankG4
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in acidic waters.
  • Soils: Sandy-bottomed ponds, lakes and streams.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Snail-seed Pondweed. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Snail-seed Pondweed. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.
  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • This species is likely sensitive to water quality. Following BMPs around streams and buffering associated drainages will reduce eutrophication and prevent water quality degradation.


Snail-seed Pondweed Photo.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Snail-seed Pondweed Photo.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Snail-seed Pondweed Photo.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Snail-seed Pondweed Photo.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition