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Earleaf Foxglove (Agalinis auriculata)

Life history

Species overview

Earleaf Foxglove (Agalinis auriculata), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in prairies or open upland woods. Blooming occurs from late August through early September. The optimal identification period for this species is late August through early September.

Synonyms: Aureolaria auriculata, Gerardia auriculata, Otophylla auriculata, Tomanthera auriculata


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Earleaf foxglove has the widest leaves of any of the foxgloves (Agalinis spp) in Wisconsin. Look also for downward-pointing hairs on the stems as well hair on the sepals. Some of the leaves may be lobed at base.
  • Flower characteristics: 2 to 2.5 cm, purple. Sessile in the upper axils, forming a leafy spike.
  • Fruit characteristics: Round-ovoid, 1 to 1.5 cm.
  • Leaf characteristics: Opposite, sessile, lanceolate, 2 to 5 cm, rounded at the base, entire or some, especially the upper, bearing near the base 1 or 2 small, divergent, lanceolate lateral lobes.


  • Blooming phenology: late August through early September
  • Fruiting phenology:
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is late August through early September


  • Growth form: Forb-erect
  • Vegetative reproduction:
  • Life cycle: Annual
  • Comments: Associated Species: Euthamia, Solidago ohioensis, Calamagrostis canadensis.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Earleaf Foxglove (Agalinis auriculata). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Agalinis auriculata in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusSC
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS1
Global RankG3
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in prairies or open upland woods.
  • Soils: May be found in or near serpentine soils.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Earleaf Foxglove. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Natural communities score
Wet-mesic Prairie 3

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Earleaf Foxglove. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Ecological landscape score
Southeast Glacial Plains 3

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.
  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • Minimize disturbance to hydrology, including soil disturbance from rutting.
  • Prescribed burns and/or brushing may be beneficial (dependent on local site conditions).
  • Maintain and restore open habitat through selective clearing and brushing.


Earleaf Foxglove Photo.

Photo © Dan Carter.

Earleaf Foxglove Photo.

Photo © Larry Leitner.

Earleaf Foxglove Photo.

Photo © Larry Leitner.

Earleaf Foxglove Photo.

Photo © Larry Leitner.

Earleaf Foxglove Photo.

Photo © Larry Leitner.

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition