Share your observations

Share your observations of plants or non-game animals with the Natural Heritage Inventory

Rare animals
Find rare and non-game animals.
Rare plants
Learn about plants on the Natural Heritage Working List.
Rare lichens
Discover Wisconsin's lichens.
Natural communities
Explore Wisconsin's natural communities.
Other features
Discover unique resources.
Rare plant monitoring annual report

Catch up with the latest news in rare plant monitoring efforts throughout Wisconsin.

Eagle license plate

Help care for rare plants and animals by ordering an Endangered Resources plate.

Contact information
For information on Wisconsin's rare plants, contact:
Kevin Doyle

Pale False Foxglove (Agalinis skinneriana)

Life history

Species overview

Pale False Foxglove (Agalinis skinneriana), a Wisconsin Endangered plant, is found in dry and calcareous prairies, woods, and barrens. Blooming occurs late July through early September; fruiting occurs early September through late October. The optimal identification period for this species is late July through early September.

Synonyms: Gerardia skinneriana


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Pale false foxglove is most likely to be confused with the also rare roundstem foxglove (A. gattingeri). Look at the stem, which is stongly angled in pale false foxglove and round in roundstem foxglove. Both these species have very narrow (up to 1mm) leaves and remain green when dried.
  • Flower characteristics: Corolla very pale pink to white, drying yellowish-white to white, bell-shaped, 1.0 to 1.5 cm in diameter, without internal markings or these markings barely visible; surfaces of 3 lower lobes of the corolla hairless.
  • Fruit characteristics: Fruit rounded, 3 to 5 mm; seeds yellow to tan and less than or equal to 1.0 mm.
  • Leaf characteristics: Opposite, rough, more or less appressed to the stem, 0.5 to 2.0 cm, but mostly less than 1.6 cm long x 0.5 to 1.0 mm wide and linear.


  • Blooming phenology: late July through early September
  • Fruiting phenology: early September through late October
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is late July through early September


  • Growth form: Forb-erect
  • Vegetative reproduction:
  • Life cycle: Annual
  • Comments: Associated Species: Andropogon gerardii, Pycnanthemum virginianum, Euthamia graminifolia, Solidago ptarmicoides. Hemiparasitic. Can self-pollinate.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Pale False Foxglove (Agalinis skinneriana). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Agalinis skinneriana in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusEND
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS2
Global RankG3G4
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in dry and calcareous prairies, woods, and barrens.
  • Soils: Sandy soils.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Pale False Foxglove. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Natural communities score
Dry Prairie 3
Mesic Prairie 1
Oak Barrens 3
Oak Opening 2

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Pale False Foxglove. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.
  • Avoid locating landings, staging areas, or access routes on or near known populations.
  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • Survey for and control invasive plants prior to conducting timber operations, as these can be spread by vehicles and often respond vigorously to increased light; see forestry BMPs for invasive species.
  • Maintain and restore open habitat through selective clearing and brushing.
  • Prescribed burns and/or brushing may be beneficial (dependent on local site conditions).


Pale False Foxglove Photo.

Photo by Ryan O'Connor, Wisconsin DNR.

Pale False Foxglove Photo.

Agalinis skinneriana can be distinguished from A. gattingeri, in part, by its less branching habit.

Photo by Ryan O'Connor, Wisconsin DNR.

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition