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American Shoreweed (Littorella uniflora)

Life history

Species overview

American Shoreweed (Littorella uniflora), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in shallow to deep water of very soft, clear, oligotrophic lakes, usually with a sandy bottom. Blooming occurs throughout July; fruiting occurs late July through late August. The optimal identification period for this species is late July through late August.

Synonyms: Littorella americana, Littorella uniflora var. americana


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Distinguished from other small, linear-leaved aquatics simply by its round leaves, which have only 1 vein. Other small linear-leaved aquatic species have either bulbous leaf bases (Isoetes), triangular leaves (Eriocaulon), flat leaves (Juncus pelocarpus, Sagittaria and Valisneria) or stolons connecting clumps (Ranunculus flammula).
  • Flower characteristics: Unisexual, basal, in groups of 3; sepals 2.5 to 4 mm long, lanceolate.
  • Fruit characteristics: Cylindric achenes, 2 mm long and half as wide.
  • Leaf characteristics: Linear, terete, glabrous to 5 cm.


  • Blooming phenology: throughout July
  • Fruiting phenology: late July through late August
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is late July through late August


  • Growth form: Aquatic forb-emergent
  • Vegetative reproduction:
  • Life cycle: Perennial
  • Comments: Associated Species: Lobelia dortmanna, Myriophyllum tenellum. Elatine minima, Isoetes spp., Eriocaulon septangulare, Gratiola aurea.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for American Shoreweed (Littorella uniflora). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Littorella uniflora in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusSC
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS2
Global RankG5
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in shallow to deep water of very soft, clear, oligotrophic lakes, usually with a sandy bottom.
  • Soils: Wet, sandy soils.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with American Shoreweed. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for American Shoreweed. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.
  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • This species is likely sensitive to water quality. Following BMPs around streams and buffering associated drainages will reduce eutrophication and prevent water quality degradation.
  • Minimize disturbance to hydrology, including soil disturbance from rutting.


American Shoreweed Photo.

Photo © Robert H. Read.

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition