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Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota)

Life history

Species overview

Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in dry to moist prairies and other grasslands, streambanks, and lake shores. It has been found naturalized on cinders of railroads and in other disturbed areas. Blooming occurs throughout July; fruiting occurs early August through late October. The optimal identification period for this species is early August through late October.

Synonyms: Glycyrrhiza glutinosa, G. lepitoda var. glutinosa, G. lepitoda var. lepitoda


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Although other legumes have glandular leaflets, Glycyrrhiza lepidota can be distinguished by the dense concentration of glands on the upper stem.
  • Flower characteristics: Pale yellow, 12 to 15 mm.
  • Fruit characteristics: Brown, 1.5 cm, densely beset with hooked prickles.
  • Leaf characteristics: 11 to 19 leaflets, the lower side dotted with minute glands, oblong or lanceolate, those of the main axis 2.5 to 5 cm, the others smaller and narrower.


  • Blooming phenology: throughout July
  • Fruiting phenology: early August through late October
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is early August through late October


  • Growth form: Forb-erect
  • Vegetative reproduction: Rhizomatous
  • Life cycle: Perennial
  • Comments: Associated Species: Often with exotics such as Lonicera spp., Poa pratensis, Melilotus spp., Pastinaca sativa, Symphoricarpos spp., Polanisia dodecandra.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Glycyrrhiza lepidota in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusSC
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS1
Global RankG5
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in dry to moist prairies and other grasslands, streambanks, and lake shores. It has been found naturalized on cinders of railroads and in other disturbed areas.
  • Soils: Dry to moist soils.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Wild Licorice. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Natural communities score
Dry Prairie 2

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Wild Licorice. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.
  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • Prescribed burns and/or brushing may be beneficial (dependent on local site conditions).
  • Survey for and control invasive plants prior to conducting timber operations, as these can be spread by vehicles and often respond vigorously to increased light; see forestry BMPs for invasive species.
  • Maintain and restore open habitat through selective clearing and brushing.


Wild Licorice Photo.

Photo © R. Schulenberg.

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition