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Contact information
For information on Wisconsin's rare plants, contact:
Kevin Doyle
608-416-3377

Large Water-starwort (Callitriche heterophylla)

Life history

Species overview

Large Water-starwort (Callitriche heterophylla), a Wisconsin Threatened plant, is found on muddy shores, pools in swift streams, and wet sand along creeks. Blooming occurs late July through late August; fruiting occurs early August through late September. The optimal identification period for this species is early August through early September.

Synonyms: Callitriche anceps, Callitriche heterophylla ssp. heterophylla

Identification

  • Distinguishing characteristics: The fruits of Callitriche heterophylla tend to be smaller than C. hermaphroditica and lack wings. Also, its leaves come in both linear and spatulate forms and may be found floating and/or submerged.
  • Flower characteristics: One male and one female flower form where the leaf meets the stem.
  • Fruit characteristics: Very small (less 1mm long and wide) with no obvious wings; pit-like markings on the surface are not aligned in rows.
  • Leaf characteristics: Three-nerved; linear submerged leaves 0.5 to 1.5 cm in length; emergent or floating leaves egg- or spatula-shaped and can be 5 mm wide.

Phenology

  • Blooming phenology: late July through late August
  • Fruiting phenology: early August through late September
  • Optimum time to identify: early August through early September

Other

  • Growth form: Aquatic forb-submergent/floating
  • Vegetative reproduction:
  • Life cycle: Annual
  • Comments: Associated Species: Potamogeton spp.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Large Water-starwort (Callitriche heterophylla). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Callitriche heterophylla in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.


Summary Information
State StatusTHR
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS1
Global RankG5
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found on muddy shores, pools in swift streams, and wet sand along creeks.
  • Soils: Wet soils.

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Large Water-starwort. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Large Water-starwort. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.
  • Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • Minimize disturbance to hydrology, including soil disturbance from rutting.
  • This species is likely sensitive to water quality. Following BMPs around streams and buffering associated drainages will reduce eutrophication and prevent water quality degradation.

Photos


Large Water-starwort  Photo.

Specimen scanned by the Wisconsin Herbarium, Madison, WI.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Large Water-starwort  Photo.

Specimen scanned by the Wisconsin Herbarium, Madison, WI.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Large Water-starwort  Photo.

Specimen scanned by the Wisconsin Herbarium, Madison, WI.

Scanned specimen courtesy of Wisconsin Herbarium

Large Water-starwort  Photo.

Photo ©  USDA-NRCS.


Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Monday, April 30, 2018
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition