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Smooth Forked Nail-wort (Paronychia canadensis)

Life history

Species overview

Smooth Forked Nail-wort (Paronychia canadensis), a Wisconsin Special Concern plant, is found in open savannas or upland prairies. Blooming occurs June through September; fruiting occurs late August through September. The optimal identification period for this species is June through September.

Synonyms: Anychia canadensis, Anychia dichotoma, Paronychia dichotoma, Queria canadensis


  • Distinguishing characteristics: Glabrous and erect, forking stems. The other annual Paronychia in Wisconsin (P. fastigitata) has a larger calyx - 2 to 3 mm long - and minutely pubescent stems.
  • Flower characteristics: Green, 5-parted flowers without petals up to 1.5 mm, in a dense cyme.
  • Fruit characteristics: Bladder-like capsule with a single smooth, dark red seed.
  • Leaf characteristics: Leaves are often white- or dark-punctuate, and are opposite with margin entire, 5 to 30 mm long by 2 to 8 mm wide, on a petiole usually 1 mm long.


  • Blooming phenology: June through September
  • Fruiting phenology: late August through September
  • Optimum time to identify: The optimal identification period for this species is June through September


  • Growth form: herbaceous
  • Vegetative reproduction:
  • Life cycle: Annual
  • Comments: Associated species: Quercus velutina, Quercus macrocarpa and Pinus banksiana. Often grows in areas with periodic disturbance.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Smooth Forked Nail-wort (Paronychia canadensis). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.

Documented locations of Paronychia canadensis in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.

Summary Information
State StatusSC
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankS2S3
Global RankG5
Tracked by NHIY

Habitats and landscapes

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

General habitat information

  • Habitat description: Found in open savannas or upland prairies.
  • Soils: Sandy and dry

Natural communities

This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Smooth Forked Nail-wort. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).

Ecological landscapes

This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Smooth Forked Nail-wort. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.

Map of the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin.

Species guidance

The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.

Avoidance measures

These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.

  • No avoidance measures have been developed for this species.

Management guidance

Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species

  • No guidance has been developed for this species.


Smooth Forked Nail-wort Photo.

Photo © Eric Howe.

Smooth Forked Nail-wort Photo.

Photo © Eric Howe.

Smooth Forked Nail-wort Photo.

Photo © Eric Howe.

Smooth Forked Nail-wort Photo.

Photo © Kitty Kohout.

Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin [exit DNR].

Last revised: Wednesday, May 05, 2021
Southwest Savanna Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Western Coulees and Ridges Southeast Glacial Plains Central Sand Hills Central Lake Michigan Coastal Central Sand Plains Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Northeast Sands Western Prairie North Central Forest Northern Highlands Northwest Lowlands Northwest Sands Northwest Lowlands Superior Coastal Plains Forest Transition