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Rare animals
Find rare and non-game animals.
Rare plants
Learn about plants on the Natural Heritage Working List.
Rare lichens
Discover Wisconsin's lichens.
Natural communities
Explore Wisconsin's natural communities.
Other features
Discover unique resources.
Contact information
For information on Wisconsin's natural communities, contact:
Ryan O'Connor
Natural Heritage Inventory Assistant Ecologist

Large Lake--deep, soft and very soft, seepage

Need a main photo for this community


General natural community overview

Lakes that are Large (>10 acres), Deep (> 18 feet), Soft and Very Soft (alkalinity < 50 ppm and < 30 ppm), and Seepage (no inlet and outlet, and the main water source is from precipitation or runoff).

The submergent community of this lake type is characterized by a group of slow-growing, mostly rosette- forming aquatic plants called isoetids. Because these plants cannot utilize bicarbonate as a source of carbon, they have substantial root systems that allow them to assimilate inorganic carbon from the sediment. Typical species include water lobelia (Lobelia dortmanna), quillworts (Isoetes spp.), and dwarf water-milfoil (Myriophyllum tenellum). However, their short stature makes them vulnerable to shading, and as a community they are extremely sensitive to nutrient pollution that favors faster-growing submerged and/or floating-leaf species. In deeper water, stoneworts (Nitella spp.), a genera of macroalgae can be found with high abundance. The floating-leaved community consists largely of water-shield (Brasenia schreberi), but also includes floating lilies (Nymphaea odorata and Nuphar variegata). Associated fish species include bluegill, pumpkinseed, largemouth bass, and yellow perch, with rock bass appearing in soft (as opposed to very soft) waters, and cisco appearing in very deep, soft waters.

Rare animals

Species of Greatest Conservation Need

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

The following Species of Greatest Conservation Need are listed according to their level of association with the natural community type, based on the findings in Wisconsin's 2015 Wildlife Action Plan.

Scores: 3 = high association, 2 = moderate association, and 1 = low association. See the key to association scores for complete definitions.

Blanchard's Cricket FrogAcris blanchardi3
Mink FrogLithobates septentrionalis3
Pickerel FrogLithobates palustris2

A Crawling Water BeetleHaliplus apostolicus2

Black TernChlidonias niger2
Common GoldeneyeBucephala clangula2
Purple MartinProgne subis2
Common TernSterna hirundo1
Forster's TernSterna forsteri1

Dragonflies and damselfliesScore
Lake EmeraldSomatochlora cingulata3
Lilypad ForktailIschnura kellicotti3
Mottled DarnerAeshna clepsydra3
Pronghorn ClubtailGomphus graslinellus3
Slaty SkimmerLibellula incesta3
Spatterdock DarnerRhionaeschna mutata3
Unicorn ClubtailArigomphus villosipes3
Alkali BluetEnallagma clausum2
Double-striped BluetEnallagma basidens2
Spangled SkimmerLibellula cyanea2
Painted SkimmerLibellula semifasciata1

Lake ChubsuckerErimyzon sucetta2
Least DarterEtheostoma microperca2
Longear SunfishLepomis megalotis2
Pugnose ShinerNotropis anogenus2
Redfin ShinerLythrurus umbratilis1

Big Brown BatEptesicus fuscus3
Little Brown BatMyotis lucifugus3
Northern Long-eared BatMyotis septentrionalis2
Silver-haired BatLasionycteris noctivagans2
Eastern PipistrellePerimyotis subflavus1
Water ShrewSorex palustris1

Blanding's TurtleEmydoidea blandingii3
Eastern RibbonsnakeThamnophis sauritus1

Please see Section 2. Approach and Methods of the Wildlife Action Plan to learn how this information was developed.

Rare plants

The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.

Scores: 3 = "significantly associated," 2 = "moderately associated," and 1 = "minimally associated."
Scientific Name Common Name Score
Eleocharis robbinsii Robbins' Spike-rush 3
Littorella uniflora American Shoreweed 3
Najas gracillima Thread-like Naiad 3
Potamogeton bicupulatus Snail-seed Pondweed 3
Potamogeton confervoides Algae-leaved Pondweed 3
Potamogeton diversifolius Water-thread Pondweed 2
Potamogeton oakesianus Oakes' Pondweed 3
Potamogeton perfoliatus Clasping-leaf Pondweed 3
Potamogeton pulcher Spotted Pondweed 3
Potamogeton vaseyi Vasey's Pondweed 2
Schoenoplectus torreyi Torrey's Bulrush 2
Scirpus pallidus Pale Bulrush 2
Utricularia resupinata Northeastern Bladderwort 3


The following Ecological Landscapes have the best opportunities to manage for , based on the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin Handbook.

Major (3 on map)
A major opportunity for sustaining the natural community in the Ecological Landscape exists, either because many significant occurrences of the natural community have been recorded in the landscape or major restoration activities are likely to be successful maintaining the community's composition, structure, and ecological function over a longer period of time.

Important (2 on map)
Although the natural community does not occur extensively or commonly in the Ecological Landscape, one to several occurrences do occur and are important in sustaining the community in the state. In some cases, important opportunities may exist because the natural community may be restricted to just one or a few Ecological Landscapes within the state and there may be a lack of opportunities elsewhere.

Present (1 on map)
The natural community occurs in the Ecological Landscape, but better management opportunities appear to exist in other parts of the state.


Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

What are conservation actions?

Conservation actions respond to issues or threats, which adversely affect species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) or their habitats. Besides actions such as restoring wetlands or planting resilient tree species in northern communities, research, surveys and monitoring are also among conservation actions described in the WWAP because lack of information can threaten our ability to successfully preserve and care for natural resources.

Threats/issues and conservations actions for natural communities


There are no photos available for at this time. Please consider donating a photo to the Natural Heritage Conservation Program.

Last revised: Tuesday, November 28, 2017