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Contact information
For information on Wisconsin's rare animals, contact:
Rich Staffen
Conservation Biologist
608-266-4340

Spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta)


Overview

Overview

Spectacle case (Cumberlandia monodonta) is both State Endangered and Federally Endangered in Wisconsin. This species is found in large rivers in the western part of the state. It lives beneath large boulders, rock ledges or in rock crevices. The host organism is still unknown.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - both state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where occurrences of this species meet NHI data standards and is not meant as a comprehensive map of all observations.

Note: Species recently added to the NHI Working List may temporarily have blank occurrence maps.


Documented locations of Cumberlandia monodonta in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.
Summary Information
State StatusEND
Federal Status in WisconsinLE
State RankS1
Global RankG3
Tracked by NHIY
WWAP SGCN

Species guidance


Note: a species guidance document is not available at this time. Information below was compiled from publication PUB-ER-085-99 (now out-of-print).

Identification: Elongate shell somewhat pinched in the middle with poorly developed teeth. Shell's surface is smooth and brown when young, becoming dark green, brown, or black and rayless with age. The anterior and posterior ends are rounded. Ventral margin is broadly concave while the dorsal margin is broadly convex. Shell is thin when young, becoming thicker in older individuals. The beak sculpture has three or four heavy ridges. The nacre is white. Length to 8 inches (20.3 cm).

Habitat: Inhabits large rivers with swiftly flowing water, most often found among boulders in patches of sand, cobble, or gravel where the current is reduced.

State Distribution: Occurs in the Chippewa, Mississippi, and St.Croix Rivers.

Phenology: The glochidial host fish is unknown for this species. It has been observed gravid from May through June.

Management Guidelines: Habitat destruction and river pollution have resulted in mussel declines. Protection of habitat and improvements in water quality along with restriction of dredging, impoundments, sand and gravel mining, and navigational improvements would benefit this species.

Photos/Video

Photos


Spectaclecase

Photo © Kevin Cummings.


Wildlife Action Plan

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Natural community (habitat) associations

The table below lists the natural communities that are associated with Spectaclecase. Only natural communities for which Spectaclecase is "high" (score=3) or "moderate" (score=2) associated are shown. See the key to association scores for complete definitions. Please see the Wildlife Action Plan to learn how this information was developed.

Natural community Score
Warmwater rivers 3
Warmwater streams 2

Ecological landscape associations

The table below lists the ecological landscape association scores for Spectaclecase. The scores correspond to the map (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None). For more information, please see the Wildlife Action Plan.

This map shows the probability of Spectaclecase occurring in each of Wisconsin's Ecological Landscapes.  Actual scores can be found in the table to the left.


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Landscape-Community combinations of highest ecological priority*

Ecological priorities are the combinations of natural communities and ecological landscapes that provide Wisconsin's best opportunities to conserve important habitats for a given Species of Greatest Conservation Need. The 10 highest scoring combinations are considered ecological priorities and are listed below. More than 10 combinations are listed if multiple combinations tied for 10th place. For more information, please see the Wildlife Action Plan.


* Ecological priority score is a relative measure that is not meant for comparison between species. This score does not consider socio-economical factors that may dictate protection and/or management priorities differently than those determined solely by ecological analysis. Further, a low ecological priority score does not imply that management or preservation should not occur on a site if there are important reasons for doing so locally.

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Issues/threats and conservation actions

Conservation actions respond to issues or threats, which adversely affect species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) or their habitats. Besides actions such as restoring wetlands or planting resilient tree species in northern communities, research, surveys and monitoring are also among conservation actions described in the WWAP because lack of information can threaten our ability to successfully preserve and care for natural resources.

Threats/issues and conservations actions for rare animals

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Last revised: Tuesday, May 21, 2019