Watershed - West Twin River (TK01)
West Twin River Watershed

Details

The West Twin River watershed is one of seven watersheds within the Twin-Door-Kewaunee River Basin. The West Twin River watershed is located in north central Manitowoc and southeastern Brown Counties, with a small portion extending into southwestern Kewaunee County. Portions of the city of Two Rivers also lie within the watershed boundaries. Soils include primarily gently to steep sloping well-drained sands and loams, and some clay soils. Soils are loamy throughout the northwestern reaches. The West Twin River begins at the confluence of the Neshota River and Devils River and has a combined watershed area of 176 square miles. There are 29 named streams and rivers in the watershed and five lakes that are 10 acres or larger, as well as, a number of high quality spring pond wetlands. The Land use is largely agricultural but some industries border the river in the city of Two Rivers. The Shoto dam, 5.9 miles upstream of the mouth, divides the West Twin River into upper and lower reaches. Lake Michigan seiche effects (tidal flows) extend approximately 1.5 miles upstream of the mouth. In the reach below the dam, the river supports a good warmwater fishery of northern pike, smallmouth bass, rock bass, perch and channel catfish. Anadromous (running) salmon and trout from Lake Michigan run seasonally up to the Shoto dam. Natural reproduction of coho and chinook salmon, rainbow trout and walleye in this reach is doubtful. The presence of these fish is attributed to WDNR stocking efforts. Nonpoint source water pollution effects in this reach are generally mitigated by a buffer of cattail marsh along the banks. The warmwater fishery above the dam is limited by agricultural nonpoint source water pollution and low flows. This reach supports rock bass, channel catfish and northern pike. Two small sections (totalling 1.1 miles) of the West Twin River above the dam are classified as Class II trout waters, but it is doubtful this use is being supported (Fago, 1985). The greater redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi) has been found in the West Twin-Neshota River system. This fish is listed as a threatened species in Wisconsin. Fisheries managers believe that the entire reach above the Shoto dam is being extensively affected by sediment deposition and nutrient enrichment from agricultural runoff and should be classified as a warmwater fishery. This potential is only partially being supported and the fishery could be improved through nonpoint source controls. The dam at Shoto is limiting the fishery potential by blocking fish migration. Wetland restoration activities could improve runoff quality.

Date  2011

Population, Land Use

This watershed is primarily agricultural, with a smattering of towns and villages throughout the land area (Figure 1) . Shoto, Rockwood, Kellnersville, Maribel, Cooperstown, Francis Creek, Denmark, Shirley and Langes Corners are located in this watershed, and a portion of the city of Two Rivers also lies within the watershed boundaries. Agriculture is the primary land use and, despite significant work to improve conditions, the West Twin runs clay brown for at least several days after rainfall events. Rural runoff (i.e. field erosion) is still a major issue in this watershed. However, significant resources have been expended to install manure storage facilities, reduce streambank pasturing, and increase nutrient management planning. Yet, more work is needed; there continues to be significant runoff pollution from agricultural fields. This issue can be addressed through county conservation programs. However, there are some inadequacies in the programs, and recommendations are included for increasing agricultural runoff program effectiveness

Date  2011

Nonpoint and Point Sources

Point source dischargers to surface water include the village of Denmark and Kossuth Sanitary District wastewater treatment plants, Land O’Lakes Dairy, Maribel Caves Bottled Water, and Potts Blue Star Cheese. The Francis Creek, Kellnersville and Maribel village wastewater treatment plants, Aurrichio Cheese, Lakeside Packing, S & R Ellisville Dairy, and Stoer Dairy Farms discharge to groundwater.

Date  2011

Ecological Landscapes for West Twin River Watershed

Ecological Landscapes

The Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape stretches from southern Door County west across Green Bay to the Wolf River drainage, then southward in a narrowing strip along the Lake Michigan shore to central Milwaukee County. Owing to the influence of Lake Michigan in the eastern part of this landscape, summers there are cooler, winters warmer, and precipitation levels greater than at locations farther inland. Dolomites and shales underlie the glacial deposits that blanket virtually all of the Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape. The dolomite Niagara Escarpment is the major bedrock feature, running across the entire landscape from northeast to southwest. Series of dolomite cliffs provide critical habitat for rare terrestrial snails, bats, and specialized plants. The primary glacial landforms are ground moraine, outwash, and lakeplain. The topography is generally rolling where the surface is underlain by ground moraine, variable over areas of outwash, and nearly level where lacustrine deposits are present. Important soils include clays, loams, sands, and gravels. Certain landforms, such as sand spits, clay bluffs, beach and dune complexes, and ridge and swale systems, are associated only with the shorelines of Lake Michigan and Green Bay. Historically, most of this landscape was vegetated with mesic hardwood forest composed primarily of sugar maple, basswood, and beech. Hemlock and white pine were locally important, but hemlock was generally restricted to cool moist sites near Lake Michigan. Areas of poorly drained glacial lakeplain supported wet forests of tamarack, white cedar, black ash, red maple, and elm, while the Wolf and Embarrass Rivers flowed through extensive floodplain forests of silver maple, green ash, and swamp white oak. Emergent marshes and wet meadows were common in and adjacent to lower Green Bay, while Lake Michigan shoreline areas featured beaches, dunes, interdunal wetlands, marshes, and highly diverse ridge and swale vegetation. Small patches of prairie and oak savanna were present in the southwestern portion of this landscape.

Date  2010

Hydrologic Features

Historic reductions in the percentage of forested and wetland vegetation have resulted in a watershed that lacks adequate opportunities for infiltration and retention of precipitation and snow melt, resulting in flashy runoff which overwhelms existing stream channels and aquatic habitat. This excessive runoff also strips valuable sediments and nutrients from the terrestrial environment and delivers them to our streams and lakes where they result in degraded water quality and poorer habitat. This can kill sensitive and intolerant fish and aquatic invertebrates. Flashy runoff also limits the amount of water available to sustain adequate flows during drought. Restoration efforts should focus on increasing the overall percentage of forested and wetland vegetation in this watershed to restore a more natural hydrologic regime and minimize the impacts of flashy runoff and an altered hydrologic regime. Soils include gently to steep sloping, well-drained sands and loams, and some clay soils. Throughout the northwestern reaches loamy soils are dominant.

Date  2010

West Twin River Watershed At-a-Glance

Impaired Water in West Twin River Watershed
River and Stream QualityAll Waters in Watershed

There are eighteen streams totaling125 miles of water within the watershed. Streams types range from intermittent to perennially flowing, named streams. Classifications of these streams are also widely variable with multiple classifica­tions found on some streams. Of the 125 stream miles in the basin, 81 miles have had their biological use classified. According to the “attainable use data” for this watershed, 19 miles of stream are classified as trout waters, 23 miles are classed as warmwater sport fisheries, 23 miles as warmwater forage fisheries, 13 miles as limited forage fisheries and 0 miles of limited aquatic life. Unclassified streams have the default classification of warmwater sport fisheries. Historical information about streams in this watershed indicates that the West Twin River and its tributaries supported a variety of fish species. In 2002 a fisheries and stream quality assessment was conducted by the WDNR throughout the West Twin River system. Two sites, Highway KB and Twin Hill Creek, however, show the need for improved buffers due to bank erosion depositing silt or clay in the stream channel and degraded habitat. Temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements, along with invertebrate and fish sampling, were used to evaluate water quality within the watershed. Hilsen­hoff Biotic Index (HBI) samples in 2002 showed good to excellent water quality at all sample locations. Results from 2002, compared to those collected in 1996, appear to indicate that the HBI had not changed substantially at the sampled locations. However, although water tem­peratures remained similar throughout the mainstem of the West Twin River, dissolved oxygen declined along the continuum of sites as the sites went from down­stream to upstream. The decline in DO appeared to be a function of low flow and land use.

Date  2010

Watershed Trout Streams
Watershed Outstanding & Exceptional Resources

Lakes and Impoundments

There are five lakes 10 acres or larger in the watershed. A number of spring ponds and wetlands are identified as "quality wetlands" through the state's coastal wetland inventory and the USFWS Special Wetlands Inventory Study. Lake resources located within this watershed include Shoto Lake, an impoundment on the West Twin River created by the Shoto Dam approximately 5.8 miles from its mouth at Lake Michigan. Middle Lake is a small hard water bog lake less then one-quarter mile from Lilly Lake, situated in a wilderness setting completely surrounded by bog and swamp. The tangled bog and swam around the lake makes access difficult even though the county Arboretum abuts the north edge. Two lakes have been assessed for trophic status including Hidden Lake and Tuma Lake, which were found to be mesotrophic based on the state's 2010 Lakes Assessment Methodology protocols. No other lakes in this watershed have sufficient montioring for a trophic assessment.

Date  2010

Wetland Health

Wetland Status The West Twin River watershed is located in north central Manitowoc and southeastern Brown Counties, with a small portion extending into southwestern Kewaunee County. Wetlands compromise 8% of the current land uses in the watershed. It is estimated that about 49% of the original wetlands in the watershed currently exist. Of these wetlands, forested wetlands (73%), emergent wetlands (12%), which include wet meadows and marshes, and shrub wetlands (12%) dominate the landscape. Wetland Condition Little is known about the condition of the remaining wetlands but estimates of reed canary grass infestations, an opportunistic aquatic invasive wetland plant, into different wetland types has been estimated based on satellite imagery. This information shows that reed canary grass dominates 75% of the existing emergent wetlands, which include wet meadows and marshes, and 12% of the remaining forested wetlands. Reed Canary Grass domination inhibits successful establishment of native wetland species. Wetland Restorability Of the 9,070 acres of estimated lost wetlands in the watershed, approximately 91% are considered potentially restorable based on modeled data, including soil types, land use and land cover (Chris Smith, DNR, 2009).

Date  2010

Impaired Waters

Impaired waters in this watershed include: the West Twin River, from the river mouth at Lake Michigan to mile 18.44, which is impaired for low dissolved oxygen due to excess phosphorus loading; Two Rivers Harbor, which is impaired for chronic aquatic toxicity, and Memorial Drive Wayside Beach, Lake Michigan, which is listed for recreational use impair­ments due to E. coli.

Date  2010

List of Impaired Waters

Aquatic Invasive Species

There has not been a comprehensive inventory of aquatic invasive species in this watershed; however, there is some data based on surveys conducted on individual waterbodies.

Date  2010

Aquatic Invasive Species

Tuma Lake (Ording) (1993), Lake Michigan (1978) have Eurasian Water-Milfoil infestations; Rusty crayfish are found in the Neshota River, Black Creek, Devils River, Francis Creek, and West Twin River; and zebra mussels are found in Lake Michigan. Phragmite investations in northeast Wisconsin wetlands is a ubiquitous problem.

Date  2010

Groundwater

In areas where the depth to the bedrock is shallow -- or in other words when the underlying bedrock is close to the sur­face -- the groundwater quality in the silurian dolomite is highly susceptible to contamination. Groundwater contamina­tion can travel quickly through fractured dolomite to reach surface waters and potable water supplies.

Date  2010

Watershed Documents
Watershed Grants
Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Bruemmerville Pond
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Casco Millpond
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Chada Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
East Alaska Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Engledinger Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Hallada Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Heidmann Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Krohns Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Lake Michigan
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Little Mud Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Seidel Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Shea Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Silver Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Stump Pond
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
West Alaska Lake
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Lmi-Fd-Kewaunee County Lakes Protection Ordinance Project: Kewaunee County proposes to conduct a county-wide inventory, analysis and classification of its surface water resources with the intent to develop a comprehensive land use and resource protection plan. This grant will go to aid in the development of that plan that pertains to the Krohn's and Three Mile/Alaska Lakes and watersheds and will address ordinance concerns specific to the needs of those lake resources. A public involvement and education program will be developed and accompany project development. Deliverables will include: 1) a draft and final report that discusses the portion of the project that describes lake classification including maps, ordinance and other management recommendations; 2) printed materials developed for the information and education program; 3) a progress report at 12 month intervals or at the time of the first reimbursement request describing the status of the above deliverables. Electronic copies will be made available upon request of all final reports and maps.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Lilly Lake
Status
Complete

Town Of Eaton: Lily Lake Watershed Land Use & Water Quality Study Phase 1: The Town of Eaton proposes to conduct a Lily Lake Watershed Land Use and Water Quality Study, as described in the planning grant application dated August 1, 2006 phase 1 of the proposal includes:

1) Determination and mapping of the watershed
2) Inventory of historic and current land uses in Lily lake watershed
3) Obtain secchi disc readings
4) Analysis of Local, County and State plans and ordinances effecting the Lilly Lake watershed

The results of the study will be submitted in a report to be presented to the Town of Eaton Planning Commission and Board for their consideration and implementation. A detailed delineation of the Lilly Lake watershed will be established through the use of Brown County\00BFs existing digital terrain model and geographic information system.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2008
Waters Involved
Lilly Lake
Status
Complete

Town Of Eaton: Lily Lake Watershed & Water Quality Study Ph 2: The Town of Eaton proposes to continue their comprehensive lake planning process in this Phase 2 of the project by continuing secchi disc readings and include dissolved oxygen and water chemistry sampling. These results are to be used in the development of a trophic state index value for Lilly Lake. They also plan on conducting an aquatic plant survey within the lake and shoreline to analyze for the presences of aquatic invasive species. Specifics include the following:

1. Point Intercept survey of aquatic plants
2. Landowner and lake user survey with DNR integration
3. Water quality, trophic condition with 2nd year funding via future small scale planning grant
4. Appraisal report will be developed for phase 3 consideration


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2008
Waters Involved
Lilly Lake
Status
Complete

Town Of Eaton: Lily Lake Watershed & Water Quality Study Ph 3: The Town of Eaton proposes to continue their comprehensive lake management plan development in this Phase 3 of the project. They will compile all the data from phase I and II into a comprehensive lake management plan for Lilly Lake. Specifics include the following:

1. Summarize and analyze phase 1,2 appraisals
2. Conduct public participation process
3. Develop strategies for implementation
4. Develop final plan


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2008
Waters Involved
Lilly Lake
Status
Complete

Town Of Eaton: Lily Lake Land Use & Water Quality Study Ph 4: The Town of Eaton proposes to continue the water quality and land use study on Lily Lake. This Phase 4 project will consist of the following: Continue trophic monitoring for 2009 and Complete final report including strategies, target reductions, and summary of water quality and land use appraisal.


Grant Details
Targeted Runoff - Rural Construction
Date
1/1/2003
Waters Involved
Devils River
Status
Complete

Town Of Morrison: Well Abandonments: to c-s @70% abandonment of two wells.


Grant Details
Targeted Runoff - Rural Construction
Date
1/1/2003
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Paider Manure Storage Retrofit: to c-s @70% retrofit of manure storage unit on Paider farm.


Grant Details
Targeted Runoff - Rural Construction
Date
8/10/2005
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Kewaunee County: Rabas Manure Storage: To cost-share installation of manure runoff practices to bring the Tom Rabas farm into compliance with NR 151 performance standards.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2007
Waters Involved
East Twin River
Status
Complete

Lakeshore Natural Resources Partnership Inc.: Lakeshore River Basin Partnership Initiative: The Lakeshore Natural Resources Partnership, Inc. (LNRP) proposes to form and strengthen partnerships with and between river protection organizations in the Lakeshore Basin. Specifically, the LNRP plans to collaborate with each river-protection organization and sponsor special events that feature a keynote speaker of some notoriety, develop and publish a quarterly LNRP newsletter, and develop the LNRP website in order to increase its ability to communicate with its constituents. The project elements and deliverables will be completed as described in the project proposal submitted to the Department and dated April 30, 2007.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2008
Waters Involved
West Twin River
Status
Complete

Woodland Dunes Nature Center: Woodland Dunes "Rivers At Risk" Education & Capacity Building Project: The Woodland Dunes Nature Center proposes to enhance three watershed stewardship groups by building their capacity to reach and engage local citizens and officials; provide citizens and officials with opportunities to individually participate in protecting and restoring the rivers; raise citizens' and officials' awareness and understanding of threats to rivers; and develop an audience profile to assess the effectiveness of education efforts. The project elements and deliverables will be completed as described in the project proposal submitted to the Department and dated 4.28.08.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2009
Waters Involved
West Twin River
Status
Complete

Woodland Dunes Nature Center: Woodland Dunes "Explore And Restore" Project: The Woodland Dunes Nature Center and Preserve, Inc. proposes to supplement and build on previous work by partners to raise public awareness and participation in water stewardship. Specifically, Wooodland Dunes will develop \201CExplore and Restore\201D signs and place them at city parks along four rivers, host litter clean-up events, and provide information and education about the rivers and water quality to citizens through fliers, newsletters, websites, and direct mailings. The overall project goals are to enhance the Maritime Museum and Woodland Dunes watershed stewardship groups existing within the project area by building their capacity to reach and engage local citizens and officials, provide individual citizens and officials with opportunities to participate in protecting and restoring the rivers, and raise citizens\2019 and officials\2019 awareness and understanding of the threats to rivers in the project area. The project elements and deliverables will be completed as described in the project proposal submitted to the Department and dated May 1, 2009.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2011
Waters Involved
West Twin River
Status
Complete

Woodland Dunes Nature Center: Expore & Restore Our Waters In Manitowoc Co.: Woodland Dunes Nature Center proposes to supplement and build on previous work by partners to raise public awareness and participation in water stewardship. Specifically, Woodland Dunes will create the "Explore and Restore our Waters of Manitowoc County" booklet for 4-H clubs which will include listings for river related fieldtrips, programs, lesson plans, and resources. The project will also offer educational programs and action projects including a rain barrel workshop, WAV training, storm drain marking, and river clean-up events. Fliers, newsletters, website, and newspaper articles will adverise the events. The project elements and deliverables will be completed as described in the project proposal submitted to the department and dated April 28,2011.


Monitoring & Projects

Projects including grants, restoration work and studies shown below have occurred in this watershed. Click the links below to read through the text. While these are not an exhaustive list of activities, they provide insight into the management activities happening in this watershed.

Monitoring Studies

The Citizen Lake Monitoring Network, the core of the Wisconsin Lakes Partnership, involves over 1000 citizen vol­unteers statewide. The goals are to collect high quality data, to educate and empower volunteers, and to share this data and knowledge. A volunteer routinely measures water clarity on Lilly Lake, using the Secchi Disk method, as an indicator of water quality. This information is then used to determine the lakes trophic state. However, WDNR staff lack data on 11 of the smaller streams. Additional monitoring is needed to better understand the effects of nonpoint source water pollution on the watershed.

Date  2010

Grants and Management Projects
West Twin River Watershed

Goals

9/23/2010
• Minimizing agricultural runoff from rural areas • Minimizing urban stormwater runoff • Protecting groundwater resources • Restoring key wetlands and forestlands for water quality improvement and protection • Establishing riparian buffers to protect water quality • Monitoring and controlling non-native invasive species • Minimizing fish passage barriers • Obtaining water quality and biological monitoring data to adequately assesswater resource conditions • Increasing citizens’ watershed awareness, understanding and stewardship activities

Priorities

9/23/2010
Priority issues for this watershed include the quantity and quality of agricultural runoff reaching surface waters and groundwater, and its impact on drinking water and surface water quality. Protecting groundwater in this area of frac­tured dolomite or karstic bedrock is important where agricultural land use and urban development can have poten­tially serious effects on water resources. Additional issues for this watershed include invasion by non-native invasive species, the presence of dams and other fish passage barriers, loss of forests and wetlands and the need for riparian vegetation buffers, runoff from urban areas, and the lack of water quality and biological assessment data.
Watershed Recommendations
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Accept citizen monitoring data (or data from other sources) into the WDNR system as credible data and increase citizen monitoring programs.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Clean Boats/Clean Waters volunteers monitor lake and stream public access sites to educate water users of aquatic invasive species prevention steps.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Easement/Buffer
 
Date
Status
In Manitowoc County’s portion of the watershed, establish 600 more acres of conservation buffers.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Engage Volunteers in Monitoring/Restoration
 
Date
Status
Establish and support more watershed groups through outreach and capacity grants.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Engage Volunteers in Monitoring/Restoration
 
Date
Status
Basin staff should establish a self-help lake monitoring program on Lilly Lake.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Kewaunee
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Brown
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Hold Workshops
 
Date
Status
5/16/2011
Proposed
Projects
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Increase citizens’ watershed awareness, understanding and stewardship.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
This watershed has the more traditional, smaller farms, so perhaps it would be a good one for encouraging grazing, fence rows, cover crops and other habitat enhancements.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Master Planning
 
Date
Status
Make water quality data accessible to county staff.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
Monitoring to evaluate aquatic life condition in Black Creek should be conducted when possible. USGS has a long-term monitoring station on this stream. WDNR would like to obtain this data and analyze for condition/ trend summarization (use warmwater IBI).
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
Monitor stream to evaluate fish community and water condition of Francis Creek (use warmwater IBI).
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
Monitor invertebrates and fish in the upper reaches of Devils River (use warmwater IBI).
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
Conduct a fish community survey and assess water condition status in the Devils River. Last survey was in 2002
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Tissue
 
Date
Status
WDNR staff should analyze resident fish from selected waters for PCB and mercury contamination.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Stream hydrology is the limiting factor of King Creek. Monitoring is needed because in 2002, no fish were found in stream.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
West Twin River TP
Date
Status
2008 - 2009 TP: "May Meet". AU: 9948. Station 10016571. Miles: 5.9 - 15.41. Potential TP delist with new samples during 2020 cycle.
5/1/2018
Proposed
 
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
West Twin River TP
Date
Status
2013 TP "May Meet". AU: 18050. Station 10034797. Miles 0- 5.9. Potential TP delisting in 2020.
5/1/2018
Proposed
 
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
West Twin River
Date
Status
Category 5A. 2018 TP Results: May Meet. Station: 10034797. AU: 18050.
1/1/2018
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Increase funding for proper abandonment of unused wells.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Increase private well testing.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Conduct groundwater sampling to determine whether herbicide and pesticide contamination exists in the Village of Francis Creek.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Increase groundwater protection work. Groundwater concerns are what drew Manitowoc County to focus on the West Twin.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Conduct an inventory of unused wells.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor for Use Designation
 
Date
Status
Assess condition of Kriwanek Creek to confirm natural community and water condition status. Confirm aquatic life use designation (LFF Survey from 1975).
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor or Assess Watershed Condition
 
Date
Status
All lakes in the West Twin River Watershed (except Lilly Lake) collect updated water quality data to assess the current overall lake health. These data could be collected by Citizen Lake Monitors.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor with Baseline Survey
 
Date
Status
Conduct assessment monitoring on streams in the West Twin River watershed (TK01) to further define nonpoint source problems. Assessment monitoring should include stream habitat surveys (Simonson et al., 1993) to help identify stream segments that are degraded because of the lack of adequate buffers and vegetative filter strips. This information will help guide CREP, the Targeted Runoff Management (TRM) Program, and other conservation funding programs to the areas of greatest need.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Monitoring Ecosystem
 
Date
Status
Assess culvert placement in the watershed to determine if culverts are impeding fish migration.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Rivers Management Grant
 
Date
Status
More funding is needed for nutrient management planning - $250,000 is critical, $500,000 would be excellent.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Rivers Management Grant
 
Date
Status
Increase funding for nutrient management. For example Manitowoc County used to receive $150,000 per year from DATCP, now it receives $22,000 annually.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Runoff Evaluation
 
Date
Status
In Manitowoc County, three of the five active barnyards in the watershed within 300 feet of a mapped stream need runoff control improvements. One needs to remove livestock access from stream.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Runoff Grant
 
Date
Status
In order to minimize agricultural runoff from rural areas in the watershed it is necessary to provide funding for nutrient management programs and manure storage.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Runoff Grant
 
Date
Status
Adjust NRCS manure storage program so that each pit is eligible for up to $50,000 rather than only one or two per county getting $100,000.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Provide guidance to the City of Two Rivers in fulfilling its MS4 permit requirements.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Provide encouragement and guidance to Denmark and the Village of Francis Creek for conducting stormwater BMPs voluntarily.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Wastewater Monitoring, Management
 
Date
Status
Address the spreading of industrial waste from cheese and packing plants.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Wastewater Monitoring, Management
 
Date
Status
In Manitowoc County’s portion of the watershed, two more manure storage facilities are needed. The old Priority Watershed program had lots of benefits and it has not been replaced with anything comparable.
10/8/2010
Proposed
 
Water Quality Planning
West Twin River (TK01) Watershed Planning
Date
Status
Project: West Twin River (TK01) Watershed Planning
7/1/2009
Proposed
Projects
 
West Twin River WatershedWater Plans and PartnershipsRead the Watershed Plan

Date  2011

Watershed History Note

The Cherney Maribel Caves are part of the Manitowoc County Park System and are located along the West Twin River in the Town of Cooperstown. The caves were formed primarily by glacial activity. Through millions of years of deposition and change, glaciers wore down the land surface exposing an underlying solid mass of rock called Niagara Dolomite. Thus was formed the naked crags and irregular cliff line of the area. These formations are in contrast to other parts of Wisconsin where rich layers of boulder till were deposited by the glaciers. Over the years, the rock has decomposed. Springs, the changing seasons, ice and temperature variations broke down the rock. Small caves and openings created by these forces appear in the rock layers of the cliff line. Springs seep from the limestone rock and flow over moss covered rocks and trickle to the river. Rare ferns, varieties of creeping plants and wild flowers are found among the rocks and within the wooded growth.

Date  2010