Watershed - Mullet River (SH05)
Mullet River Watershed

Details

The Mullet River watershed is approximately 88 square miles in size and is located in eastern Fond du Lac and western Sheboygan counties. The Mullet River watershed ultimately connects to and is part of the Sheboygan River watershed and is located within the Lake Michigan Basin. Crop farming and public and private forestry make up the majority of the land uses in the watershed, with 57% of the land cover in agriculture, followed by 21% in forest. Forested lands occur primarily within the Kettle Moraine sub-watershed and landscape. The City of Plymouth, which encompasses approximately 4% of the land use within the watershed, is the principal urban area. The watershed includes 3.9 miles of Class I trout water, 9.6 miles of Class II trout water, and 33.9 miles of warm water sport fishery. Water quality is impacted by rural and urban nonpoint source pollution.

Date  2010

Population, Land Use

Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural. The City of Plymouth is the major urban area in the watershed. About half of the land area of the Village of Glenbeulah rests in the watershed, as well as small portions of the Village of Elkhart Lake and the City of Sheboygan Falls. Water quality ranges from good to fair in the watershed, and is affected by agricultural and urban runoff, point source discharges in the urban areas, stream channelization and dams. Dairy and row crop farming along with pasturing are the main types of agricultural activity within the watershed. Over the years, a number of conservation practices have been employed on farms within the watershed including contour plowing, crop rotation, nutrient management planning, designed manure storage installations, grassed waterways, filter strips, stream buffers, and barnyard runoff measures. Use of these farm practices has a beneficial impact on water quality. Traditionally, installation of agricultural conservation practices has been voluntary and some federal, state and local cost share dollars have been made available for this purpose. However, runoff from agricultural lands continues to impact water quality in the watershed and there is a need to further reduce sediment and nutrient impacts to waterways in the Mullet River watershed. Urban land uses within the watershed are relatively low (about 4%). Most of this land use is within the City of Plymouth. Even though land that contributes runoff from this category is relatively small in area in this watershed, urban runoff can have a significant negative impact to water quality. Impervious surfaces and storm sewer drains provide immediate delivery of pollutants to the waterways without any filtering capabilities. Construction sites within urban or suburban areas can also lead to significant delivery of sediment to waterways. Sediment covers habitat for fish and carries nutrients which further degrade water quality. Sheboygan County has an erosion control and stormwater ordinance for development in the unincorporated areas. The City of Sheboygan Falls has a WDNR municipal stormwater permit that includes a number of requirements to reduce pollutant loadings from storm sewers and other runoff. As part of their permit, the City of Sheboygan Falls is also required to have and implement a stormwater runoff management ordinance. The City of Plymouth is not currently required to have a WDNR municipal stormwater permit.

Date  2010

Nonpoint and Point Sources

There are a number of general wastewater and stormwater permits that cover a variety of runoff sources including stormwater permits for construction sites, stormwater runoff permits for industrial sites, and general permits for runoff from non-metallic mining. Most of these general permits include standard conditions or best management practices that must be followed to be in compliance with the permits. Changes in state law will require changes in the permits as they are reviewed by the WDNR. Although permits regulate the discharge, there is always the potential for an accidental or unplanned bypass or discharge. The Northern Moraine Utility Commission Sewage Plant provides wastewater treatment for the Elkhart Lake, Crystal Lake, Glenbeulah and Greenbush communities. It has monthly average wastewater inflows between 221,000 and 475,000 gallons per day. Treatment consists of fine screening, conventional activated sludge, and final clarification. Treated wastewater (effluent) is discharged to 3 seepage ponds near the Mullet River below Glenbeulah. The Northern Moraine wastewater treatment plant is currently in substantial compliance with their State WPDES permit which was issued in December 2008. The Plymouth Wastewater Treatment Plant has monthly average wastewater inflows between 1.38 and 2.72 million gallons per day. Treatment consists of primary clarification, conventional activated sludge, secondary clarification, anthracite filtration, and seasonal ultraviolet disinfection. Treated wastewater (effluent) is discharged directly to the Mullet River near the south corporate limits of the City of Plymouth. The City of Plymouth wastewater treatment plant is currently in substantial compliance with the State WPDES permit which was issued in March, 1997. Sartori Foods discharges approximately 200,000 gallons per day of non-contact cooling water and reverse osmosis water to the Mullet River via the City of Plymouth storm sewer system.

Date  2010

Ecological Landscapes for Mullet River Watershed

Ecological Landscapes

The Mullet River Watershed is covered by two ecological landscapes: the Southeast Glacial Plains and the Central Lake Michigan Coastal. The Southeast Glacial Plains Ecological Landscape makes up the bulk of the non-coastal land area in southeast Wisconsin. This Ecological Landscape is made up of glacial till plains and moraines. Most of this Ecological Landscape is composed of glacial materials deposited during the Wisconsin Ice Age, but the southwest portion consists of older, pre-Wisconsin till with a more dissected topography. Soils are lime-rich tills overlain in most areas by a silt-loam loess cap. Agricultural and residential interests throughout the landscape have significantly altered the historical vegetation. Most of the rare natural communities that remain are associated with large moraines or in areas where the Niagara Escarpment occurs close to the surface. Historically, vegetation in the Southeast Glacial Plains consisted of a mix of prairie, oak forests and savanna, and maple-basswood forests. Wet-mesic prairies, southern sedge meadows, emergent marshes, and calcareous fens were found in lower portions of the Landscape. End moraines and drumlins supported savannas and forests. Agricultural and urban land use practices have drastically changed the land cover of the Southeast Glacial Plains since Euro-American settlement. The current vegetation is primarily agricultural cropland. Remaining forests occupy only about 10% of the land area and consist of maple-basswood, lowland hardwoods, and oak. No large mesic forests exist today except on the Kettle Interlobate Moraine which has topography too rugged for agriculture. Some existing forest patches that were formerly savannas have succeeded to hardwood forest due to fire suppression. The Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape stretches from southern Door County west across Green Bay to the Wolf River drainage, then southward in a narrowing strip along the Lake Michigan shore to central Milwaukee County. Owing to the influence of Lake Michigan in the eastern part of this landscape, summers there are cooler, winters warmer, and precipitation levels greater than at locations farther inland. Dolomites and shales underlie the glacial deposits that blanket virtually all of the Central Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape. The dolomite Niagara Escarpment is the major bedrock feature, running across the entire landscape from northeast to southwest. Series of dolomite cliffs provide critical habitat for rare terrestrial snails, bats, and specialized plants. The primary glacial landforms are ground moraine, outwash, and lakeplain. The topography is generally rolling where the surface is underlain by ground moraine, variable over areas of outwash, and nearly level where lacustrine deposits are present. Important soils include clays, loams, sands, and gravels. Certain landforms, such as sand spits, clay bluffs, beach and dune complexes, and ridge and swale systems, are associated only with the shorelines of Lake Michigan and Green Bay. Historically, most of this landscape was vegetated with mesic hardwood forest composed primarily of sugar maple, basswood, and beech. Hemlock and white pine were locally important, but hemlock was generally restricted to cool moist sites near Lake Michigan. Areas of poorly drained glacial lakeplain supported wet forests of tamarack, white cedar, black ash, red maple, and elm, while the Wolf and Embarrass Rivers flowed through extensive floodplain forests of silver maple, green ash, and swamp white oak. Emergent marshes and wet meadows were common in and adjacent to lower Green Bay, while Lake Michigan shoreline areas featured beaches, dunes, interdunal wetlands, marshes, and highly diverse ridge and swale vegetation. Small patches of prairie and oak savanna were present in the southwestern portion of this landscape.

Date  2010

Hydrologic Features

The Mullet River originates from the outflow of Mullet Lake and the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area in Fond du Lac county and flows in an easterly direction for approximately 40 miles to its confluence with the Sheboygan River in the Town of Sheboygan Falls, 17 miles upstream of Lake Michigan. The water quality of the Mullet River is considered good from its headwaters to Plymouth (approximately 25 miles) and fair from Plymouth downstream to its confluence with the Sheboygan River (approximately 15 miles) (WDNR 1968, 1995). The middle of the river, from Glenbeulah to Plymouth, has an increase in spring flow that lowers stream water temperatures and is classified as a Cold Water Community stream (trout). Upstream of Glenbeulah, and downstream of STH 67 near Plymouth, the Mullet River is classified as a Warm Water Sport Fish Community stream. This classification difference is due primarily to the increase in spring flow between Glenbeulah and Plymouth. The Mullet River is unique in that it flows from the warm water headwaters into a cold water segment. All of the other major tributaries in the Sheboygan Basin, including the Sheboygan and Onion Rivers, originate as coldwater streams and change over to warm water further downstream. The existing chemical and biological water quality information supports the Mullet River's current biological classification. The river segment that flows through the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area, Northern Unit-Kettle Moraine State Forest, and the Old Wade House Historic Site are all located within the warm water sport fish community segment.

Date  2010

Fisheries

La Budde Creek Class I Trout Reach (RM 7.0-3.1) This reach of LaBudde Creek originates as a series of small springs southwest of Rhine Center and ends at Badger Road. The 3.9-mile segment is Class I trout stream and has good water quality for the entire reach. Stream improvements have upgraded the trout habitat and encouraged natural brook trout reproduction. A fish community survey in 2009 rated fair. Low gradient and sedimentation may be limiting the fish population here. Class II Trout Reach (RM 3.1-0) This reach of the creek is classified as a Class II trout stream, and extends from its confluence with the Mullet River up to Badger Road. Water quality is rated as good. The low gradient of the stream and some sedimentation from upstream agricultural runoff limit fish and aquatic life habitat. Fish community surveys within this reach were done in 2002 and 2009, and rated fair and poor, respectively. Again, sedimentation may be having an impact on the fish community. The benthic macroinvertebrate community rated good, as did the stream habitat.

Date  2010

Wildlife and Habitat

Approximately 65% of the Mullet River watershed is located within the "North to Mid Kettle Moraine" Terrestrial Conservation Opportunity Area, as defined in the Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan (WAP, WDNR 2005). The WAP is the result of a statewide effort to identify native Wisconsin wildlife species that have low or declining populations that are in need of conservation action. These are classified as Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN). The "North to Mid Kettle Moraine" is defined by a complex mosaic of savanna, prairie, sedge meadow, marsh, calcareous fen, and southern forest communities. It is the largest forested block in Southeastern Wisconsin and, as such, is extremely important habitat for forest interior birds and other species that require large blocks of continuous forest. Interlobate moraines with this combination of natural features at this scale are exceedingly rare globally.

Date  2010

Mullet River Watershed At-a-Glance

Impaired Water in Mullet River Watershed
River and Stream QualityAll Waters in Watershed

The Mullet River watershed can be divided into five sub-watersheds including: the Mullet Creek, Kettle Morraine, La Budde Creek, Municipal Plymouth and Lower Mullet subwatersheds. The Mullet Creek sub-watershed represents 24% of the Mullet River watershed and is located at the river headwaters, primarily in Fond du Lac County. This sub-watershed is dominated by wetland and agricultural land cover. Little or no monitoring has been done within this stream reach. Therefore, the water quality conditions and stream biology are unknown, but the water quality is generally perceived to be in good condition. There are few springs in this reach, combined with altered flows resulting from channelization and impoundments. Because of these limiting factors the fishery is classified as a warm water sport fishery. Two impoundments are present in the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area to provide habitat for waterfowl. The Kettle Moraine sub-watershed encompasses 28.3% of the Mullet River watershed. It includes that portion of the Mullet River watershed below the Mullet Creek sub-watershed. This sub-watershed is dominated by forest and agricultural land cover. Water quality within this segment of the Mullet River is rated as generally good, but is limited by a dam located at the Camp Evelyn Girl Scout facility. This impoundment alters the natural water temperature regime. The Northern Moraine Utility Commission wastewater treatment plant discharges treated effluent to the groundwater of the Mullet River watershed. It is believed that after some additional treatment by the soil, the effluent mixes with the groundwater, which discharges directly to the Mullet River during part or all of the year. The fishery is represented by a good diversity of intolerant species, including brook and brown trout. This section of stream is a Class II stream for brown trout and the diversity and number of individuals indicates a good fishery. The macroinvertebrate community is represented by a wide diversity of both intolerant and tolerant genera. The high water temperatures and sedimentation in the Camp Evelyn impoundment does impair the trout habitat. WDNR personnel surveyed the Mullet River downstream of the Crystal Lake Golf Course in August 1999. The fish community rated poor, possibly due to the lack of fish cover. Stream habitat analysis showed excellent buffer area and shading; moderate streambank erosion; bottom substrate with a mixture of rock, gravel, and sand; and moderate fish cover. Benthic macroinvertebrate ratings for this location were good to very good. The La Budde Creek sub-watershed comprises 11% of the Mullet River watershed and is dominated by cool/cold water resources. It includes the total area drained by La Budde Creek, which flows directly into the Mullet River. La Budde Creek is one of three streams in Sheboygan County where significant amounts of naturally reproduced trout are found. The stream obtains the majority of its flow from several seepage springs along its upper mile. The steam averages 8-feet in width, 10-inches in depth, and has a relatively low gradient of 5.6-feet of drop per mile. Management on the fishery area is aimed specifically at brook trout, which have a fair amount of natural reproduction in the headwaters of the stream. The native brook trout are supplemented with hatchery fish to provide additional recreational opportunities. The Municipal Plymouth sub-watershed, which composes 25.1% of the Mullet River watershed, includes that portion of the watershed between the Kettle Moraine sub-watershed and the Lower Mullet sub-watershed. This sub-watershed represents the most urban portion of the Mullet River watershed. Nonpoint source discharges and excess pollutant loading can have an impact on the water quality and biological integrity of streams in this sub-watershed. Water chemistry, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and stream habitat were assessed upstream and downstream of the City of Plymouth on the Mullet River in 2008. Bacteria and turbidity were significantly higher downstream of the city limits when compared to upstream concentrations. Bacteria concentrations did exceed water quality criteria standards. The other water quality pollutants did not exceed water quality criteria or did not have standards for comparison. The fish and macroinvertebrate community, and stream habitat was slightly degraded within the city limits. Study results show that nonpoint source runoff from the City of Plymouth does impact the Mullet River. The Lower Mullet sub-watershed, which comprises approximately 11% of the Mullet River Watershed, includes the remainder of the watershed below the confluence. The reach is classified as a warm-water sport fish community stream. Water quality in this segment of the Mullet River is fair to good. Water chemistry and macroinvertebrate samples collected during 1994 indicate an increase in nutrients and solids from upstream to downstream but overall are not limiting the stream's biological potential. A survey was done in 2003 and the fish community rated fair. Benthic macroinvertebrate and stream habitat rated good. Point source dischargers as well as stormwater runoff, and cropland runoff result in increased nutrients, sedimentation, and bacteria to the stream.

Date  2010

Watershed Trout Streams
Watershed Outstanding & Exceptional Resources

Lakes and Impoundments

Mullet Lake, Surface Acres = 200, Maximum Depth = 7 feet This is a shallow, hard-water, seepage lake valued primarily for waterfowl hunting and wildlife. Considerable numbers of ducks use the lake all year and the lake receives moderate hunting pressure during the open season. Its shallow depth of about seven feet and abundance of rooted aquatic plants contribute to annual winterkill conditions that limit the fishery to an occasional northern pike and perch. A few property owners recently installed a small aeration system, which may promote fish carryover during the winter months. Public access is absent. Mullet Lake is located within the (currently) proposed 495-acre Mullet Lake State Natural Area. The lake is surrounded by a wetland complex of tamarack, shrub carr, sedge meadow, and swamp forest. This undeveloped inland lake with intact wetland vegetation provides important breeding, nesting, and migratory habitat for numerous bird, reptile, and amphibian species. The lake’s outlet stream is the Mullet River, also called Mullet Creek in this section. The lake and swamp complex is the headwaters of the Mullet River. Glenbeulah Millpond, Surface Acres = 7, Maximum Depth = 11 feet Glenbeulah Millpond is an impoundment of the Mullet River in Glenbeulah at the site of an old sawmill formed by a 12-foot head dam. The water quality problems identified in the 1968 Water Resources of Sheboygan report (WDNR 1968) likely exist today; nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and abundant carp are consistent with impounded rivers. Thermal increases associated with this impoundment and the Camp Evelyn impoundment warm the trout water portion of the Mullet River, which is a short distance downstream. No recent water quality data are available for this impoundment. The fishery does support a warm water sport fish population that includes bluegill, pumpkinseed, northern pike, and largemouth bass. Otter Pond, Surface acres = 6.1, maximum depth = 10 feet Otter Pond is a small natural lake with a maximum depth of 10 feet. The bottom is primarily muck and peat, with marl in the spring areas. The shoreline is bog marsh, with points of rock and gravel at various places around the pond. There is abundant aquatic plant growth is some areas of the pond. Otter Pond receives some of its water budget from Glenbeulah Springs, but the majority comes from its own springs. The major springs are located in the south side of the pond, near the railroad grade. The current water quality and biological community is unknown. Camp Evelyn, Surface acres = 1.8, maximum depth = 6 feet This is a small impoundment in the trout water section of the Mullet River. The dam at the Camp Evelyn Girl Scout facility creates a fish barrier and increases water temperatures which are detrimental to trout and other cold water species. No recent water quality data have been collected in this impoundment. Crystal Lake, Surface acres = 152, maximum depth = 61 feet At 152 acres, Crystal Lake is a moderately fertile, natural lake, heavily used for fishing and boating. The lake's shoreline is intensively developed with residential dwellings. Many property owners have reinforced the shoreline with seawalls that have detracted from the aesthetic quality as well as the fisheries value. In the autumn of 1966, a sanitary district was organized and sewers were installed in the late 1970s. Due to lake level fluctuations, the sanitary district has been conducting groundwater and lake water balance studies. Information on these studies and other lake information can be found at their website, www.sanitarydistrict.com. Crystal Lake is currently on the State of Wisconsin’s impaired waters (303(d)) list, due to elevated mercury levels found in fish tissue. The source of the mercury is atmospheric deposition from industrial pollution. There is no way to remove the lake from the impaired waters list at this time. However, there is a fish consumption advisory in place for Crystal Lake to reduce the risk of human health exposure to mercury. The lake's fishery has undergone several major changes over the past 45 years due to shifts in management philosophy. Over time it has been managed for walleye and northern pike, then trout and panfish, then largemouth bass and panfish. It is currently being managed for the native fish community: largemouth bass, panfish and with limited walleye due to stocking by private organizations. The existing bass and panfish community is improving due in part to the new bass size limit restrictions. Historically, the lake was chemically treated to control aquatic plants and algae. In 1989, the DNR conducted a Sensitive Area Survey of the lake and as a result prohibited the use of aquatic herbicides and algicides in an attempt to protect the fish habitat and the water quality. Since 1986, the water quality, aquatic plant community, and phyto- and zooplankton have been surveyed to obtain baseline water quality data and to assess trends. The results from this survey indicate that the water quality is excellent. The lake boasts some of the clearest water found in southeastern Wisconsin. A significant amount of Eurasian water milfoil is present in Crystal Lake. The DNR, in cooperation with the Crystal Lake Property Owners Association, attempted to displace the Eurasian water milfoil with a native species, Large Leaf Pondweed during the summer of 1994. The control program was effective for only a few years. By 1997 Eurasian water milfoil had again moved into the area displacing the newly planted native species (Wakeman 1998). A public boat launch with adequate parking is available in the southwest bay. A unique boating ordinance on the lake prohibits the use of motors on Sundays. This is strongly supported by residents on the lake. Plymouth Mill Pond, Surface acres = 27.6, maximum depth = 6 feet Plymouth Millpond is a moderately sized impoundment within the city of Plymouth on the Mullet River. The impoundment is very shallow with a soft mud bottom and very little rooted aquatic plant life. Periphytic blue-green algae are a problem as is high turbidity during months when carp activity is high. Carp have dominated the fish community and carp numbers are currently very high (pers. comm. John Nelson). Up to 1,000 Canada Geese roost on the pond causing some nuisances to riparian landowners and providing some hunting opportunities during feeding flights. Several broods of geese are produced on the pond each year (pers. comm. Steve Klock). Public access is available by several city streets, navigable water from the upper end of the pond, approximately two acres of city property at the dam site, and by approximately 1,000 feet of shoreline on city school property. A comprehensive management plan was developed for the mill pond in 2008. A sediment quality assessment was conducted by WDNR on June 29, 1999 on the Plymouth Millpond. Samples were collected at two sites in the soft sediment that has accumulated behind the dam. The first site was 15m upstream from the dam and consisted of two cores. The top halves of all the core samples were composited for a single sample and the bottoms of all of the cores were composited for a second sample. This enabled us to look at sediment quality that represents different time periods. The sediment that is buried to the greatest depth represents deposition that would have settled at an earlier date. A third sample was collected 100m upstream in the mid-channel of the impoundment. Two cores were collected and composited to make a single sample. Pollutant concentrations in the two sample locations showed low to moderate levels of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. This is typical with waterbodies receiving urban stormwater runoff. In 2005, the City of Plymouth formed a mill pond committee to evaluate alternatives and measures that could be taken to improve the water quality and aesthetics of the Plymouth Mill Pond. A consultant was retained to collect information and provide recommendations which were provided to the City in a report dated January, 2008. In 2009, a summer drawdown was implemented as part of a low cost alternative measure that was identified in the report. The results of this drawdown were not formally reported although cursory observations by DNR staff indicate very little improvement in impoundment water depths was attained. The drawdown temporarily decreased water quality conditions downstream as some sediment was transported downstream by temporary erosion of the pond bottom. New Paris Impoundment, Surface acres = 6.9, maximum depth = unknown This is an old dam on the Mullet River located within a historic settlement area within the City of Plymouth. The dam has partially failed and much of the river flow is within the historic millrace. No water quality data is available for this impoundment.

Date  2010

Wetland Health

Wetland Status: The Mullet River Watershed drains about 88 square miles in Fond du Lac and Sheboygan Counties. An estimated 7% of the current land uses in the watershed are wetlands. Almost 59% of the original wetlands in the watershed are estimated to exist. Of these wetlands, forested wetlands (64%) and emergent wetlands (25%), which include wet meadows and marshes, dominate the landscape. Wetland Condition: Little is known about the condition of the remaining wetlands but estimates of reed canary grass infestations, an opportunistic aquatic invasive wetland plant, into different wetland types has been estimated based on satellite imagery. This information shows that reed canary grass dominates 71% of the existing emergent wetlands and 21% of the remaining forested wetlands. Reed Canary Grass domination inhibits successful establishment of native wetland species. Wetland Restorability: Of the 3,814 acres of estimated lost wetlands in the watershed, approximately 87% are considered potentially restorable based on modeled data, including soil types, land use and land cover (Chris Smith, DNR, 2009).

Date  2010

Potentially Restorable Wetland Analysis

Impaired Waters

Since 1998, Crystal Lake has been on the State of Wisconsin’s impaired waters (303(d)) list, due to elevated mercury levels found in fish tissue. The source of the mercury is atmospheric deposition from industrial pollution. There is no way to remove the lake from the impaired waters list at this time. However, there is a fish consumption advisory in place for Crystal Lake to reduce the risk of human health exposure to mercury.

Date  2010

List of Impaired Waters

Aquatic Invasive Species

Today, carp and rusty crayfish are assumed to be present throughout the watershed. Zebra mussels also were found in Crystal Lake in 2001. These non-native invasive species replace native species like emerald shiners, sculpin and northern clearwater crayfish. The movement of other non-native invasive species like sea lamprey and round goby migrating up the Sheboygan River from Lake Michigan has been stopped by several dams on the Sheboygan River in Sheboygan, Kohler and Sheboygan Falls. Purple loosestrife, Eurasian water milfoil, Phragmites, reed canary grass, hybrid cattail, bush honeysuckle, garlic mustard, buckthorn, and Japanese knotweed are the primary non-native invasive plants present in the watershed. Reed canary grass is present in most wetlands in the Mullet River watershed. The degree to which the reed canary grass dominates a wetland determines the wetland restoration potential. Vegetation management by landowners and land management agencies is essential in curtailing further establishment of this invasive plant.

Date  2010

Watershed Documents
Watershed Grants
Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2008
Waters Involved
Crystal Lake
Status
Complete

Sheboygan County: Crystal Lake Mod Flow: Sheboygan County will hire a contractor to develop a conceptual groundwater model with defined boundaries and layering structure. The final report will contain the following elements: 1) A narrative to describe the model and provide discussion of the data needed for the completion of a database for model calibration along with maps identifying data collection needs and kinds of data still needed. 2) Printout of field data. The collection of field data will include piezometer nests on Elkhart and Little Elkhart lakes and construction of monitoring wells to evaluate groundwater flow conditions. 3) Assembling and accessing existing groundwater level, water quality studies, groundwater modeling and other task done by DNR. 4) Evaluation and comparison of the database for the watersheds of Crystal, Elkhart and Little Elkhart. Water chemistry, inter relationships with adjacent wetland and water sources will be looked at. 5) Development of groundwater maps. 6) Identification of gaps in data. 7) Development of the preliminary MODFLOW model as described in the grantproposal. 8) Development of a proposal to complete the modeling in subsequent grants. 9) Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the department.10) Minutes from the public meeting regarding the findings of the study.

Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the final plan will be provided to the department. Exact details for all deliverables are described in the project description of grant application.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mill Pond
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Habitat Wq & Macro Invert. Sampling I: The City of Plymouth will partner with the Plymouth High School to conduct water quality monitoring and a plant survey on the 41 acre Plymouth Millpond. A consultant will utilize the data collected for the project report and for subsequent grants. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the department. The report will contain the following elements:

" historical information and background on the Mullet River and Mill Ponds,
" an assessment of agricultural practices
" watershed mapping
" information on threatened & endangered species
" data and results from all sampling conducted as discussed in the grant project proposal
" a discussion of sampling methods
" aquatic macrophyte map
" bathymetric map based on sediment sampling
" sediment volume calculations
" recommendations for aquatic plant management


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mill Pond
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Comprehensive Lake Plan- Phase Iii: A consultant for the City of Plymouth will provide a comprehensive management plan for long-term management of the Plymouth Mill Pond.. This plan will build upon the objectives from Phase II of the grant and the data collected from Phase I. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the department. Exact details for deliverbles are described in the project description.The report/management plan will contain the following project deliverables:
" A long term management plan for the Plymouth Mill Pond.
" The management plan will include water quality objectives, recommended BMPs, ordinances and/or other actions.
" Preliminary engineering for implementation of best management practices
" The strategy for implementation of the plan
" Coordinate with other county agencies to obtain information on known erosion control areas of concern, identify critical sites and develop land management use objectives in the watershed.
" Work with state agencies on recommended management actions for the protection of threatened and endangered species or resources in the project area.
" Provide information on the adequacy of existing land use plans, runoff control ordinances, enforcement and other existing programs relative to protecting the water quality.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mill Pond
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Wilm & Flux Modeling Phase Ii: A consultant for the City of Plymouth will provide watershed modeling, conduct an alternatives evaluation, and provide public information and involvement in the planning process for the Plymouth Millpond. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the Department. All details for deliverbles are described in the project description.The report will contain the results of the following project deliverables:

" WILMS modeling of the millpond to determine anticipated water quality conditions given existing watershed conditions.
" Discussion of the methods, inputs and assumptions used in the WILMS model.
" Calculation of the longevity of a dredging project.
" Estimate of annual sediment loading
" Specific lake water quality management objectives based on results of the WILMS modeling.
" Identification and prioritization of the needs of the millpond and watershed relative to management activities
" Alternatives analysis for both short and long term management of the millpond.
" News releases and meeting minutes from public information meetings held to keep the public informed and involved in the planning process.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mullet River
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Habitat Wq & Macro Invert. Sampling I: The City of Plymouth will partner with the Plymouth High School to conduct water quality monitoring and a plant survey on the 41 acre Plymouth Millpond. A consultant will utilize the data collected for the project report and for subsequent grants. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the department. The report will contain the following elements:

" historical information and background on the Mullet River and Mill Ponds,
" an assessment of agricultural practices
" watershed mapping
" information on threatened & endangered species
" data and results from all sampling conducted as discussed in the grant project proposal
" a discussion of sampling methods
" aquatic macrophyte map
" bathymetric map based on sediment sampling
" sediment volume calculations
" recommendations for aquatic plant management


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mullet River
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Comprehensive Lake Plan- Phase Iii: A consultant for the City of Plymouth will provide a comprehensive management plan for long-term management of the Plymouth Mill Pond.. This plan will build upon the objectives from Phase II of the grant and the data collected from Phase I. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the department. Exact details for deliverbles are described in the project description.The report/management plan will contain the following project deliverables:
" A long term management plan for the Plymouth Mill Pond.
" The management plan will include water quality objectives, recommended BMPs, ordinances and/or other actions.
" Preliminary engineering for implementation of best management practices
" The strategy for implementation of the plan
" Coordinate with other county agencies to obtain information on known erosion control areas of concern, identify critical sites and develop land management use objectives in the watershed.
" Work with state agencies on recommended management actions for the protection of threatened and endangered species or resources in the project area.
" Provide information on the adequacy of existing land use plans, runoff control ordinances, enforcement and other existing programs relative to protecting the water quality.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mullet River
Status
Complete

City Of Plymouth: Wilm & Flux Modeling Phase Ii: A consultant for the City of Plymouth will provide watershed modeling, conduct an alternatives evaluation, and provide public information and involvement in the planning process for the Plymouth Millpond. Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the report will be provided to the Department. All details for deliverbles are described in the project description.The report will contain the results of the following project deliverables:

" WILMS modeling of the millpond to determine anticipated water quality conditions given existing watershed conditions.
" Discussion of the methods, inputs and assumptions used in the WILMS model.
" Calculation of the longevity of a dredging project.
" Estimate of annual sediment loading
" Specific lake water quality management objectives based on results of the WILMS modeling.
" Identification and prioritization of the needs of the millpond and watershed relative to management activities
" Alternatives analysis for both short and long term management of the millpond.
" News releases and meeting minutes from public information meetings held to keep the public informed and involved in the planning process.


Monitoring & Projects

Projects including grants, restoration work and studies shown below have occurred in this watershed. Click the links below to read through the text. While these are not an exhaustive list of activities, they provide insight into the management activities happening in this watershed.

Monitoring Studies

Little or no monitoring has been done on the streams or lakes in this watershed. Throughout this watershed, there are no water quality data for 145 out of the 154 water bodies. Additional support is needed to adequately inventory, monitor and assess the water resources in this watershed. There is some macroinvertebrate biological data from 1980 that rates the Mullet River as fair to fairly poor. These two samples were collected upstream of County Highway U. The overall water quality of lakes and streams within the Mullet Creek sub-watershed is perceived to be good.

Date  2010

Mullet River Watershed

Priorities

7/7/2010
Runoff from agricultural lands especially limits the fish community in the trout stream (cold water) sections of La Budde Creek. According to a GIS analysis of the 2001 National Land Cover Data, 33% of the riparian corridor, or 57 acres of land within that 50' corridor, is not protected by buffers.
7/7/2010
Wastewater and stormwater discharges-- There are a number of general wastewater and stormwater permits that cover a variety of runoff sources including stormwater permits for construction sites, stormwater runoff permits for industrial sites, and general permits for runoff from non-metallic mining. Most of these general permits include standard conditions or best management practices that must be followed to be in compliance with the permits. Changes in state law will require changes in the permits as they are reviewed by the WDNR. Although permits regulate the discharge, there is always the potential for an accidental or unplanned bypass or discharge. The Northern Moraine Utility Commission Sewage Plant provides wastewater treatment for the Elkhart Lake, Crystal Lake, Glenbeulah and Greenbush communities. It has monthly average wastewater inflows between 221,000 and 475,000 gallons per day. Treatment consists of fine screening, conventional activated sludge, and final clarification. Treated wastewater (effluent) is discharged to 3 seepage ponds near the Mullet River below Glenbeulah. The Northern Moraine wastewater treatment plant is currently in substantial compliance with their State WPDES permit which was issued in December 2008. The Plymouth Wastewater Treatment Plant has monthly average wastewater inflows between 1.38 and 2.72 million gallons per day. Treatment consists of primary clarification, conventional activated sludge, secondary clarification, anthracite filtration, and seasonal ultraviolet disinfection. Treated wastewater (effluent) is discharged directly to the Mullet River near the south corporate limits of the City of Plymouth. The City of Plymouth wastewater treatment plant is currently in substantial compliance with the State WPDES permit which was issued in March, 1997. Sartori Foods discharges approximately 200,000 gallons per day of non-contact cooling water and reverse osmosis water to the Mullet River via the City of Plymouth storm sewer system.
7/7/2010
Snow disposal practices in the City of Plymouth are unacceptable to citizens, some of whom have called in complaints to the WDNR in 2009 and 2010.
7/7/2010
The eastern-most unnamed tributary to the Mullet River in the Municipal Plymouth sub-watershed (WBIC 53600) has water quality problems stemming from excess nutrients and sedimentation.
7/7/2010
Water quality storm event monitoring upstream and downstream of the City of Plymouth indicates that bacteria and suspended solids measurements within the Mullet River increase significantly within and downstream of the city during rain events.
7/7/2010
The Plymouth Mill Pond dam and New Paris dam affect water quality and impede fish passage.
7/7/2010
The Plymouth Mill Pond suffers from poor water quality and is over-run with carp and Canada geese.
7/7/2010
Fish habitat improvements are needed in the cold-water segments of the Mullet River.
7/7/2010
Fish passage is known to be impeded by the Richardson dam.
7/7/2010
Loss of wetlands. Historically, agricultural and urban development has resulted in the loss of about 41% of the original wetlands in this watershed and the removal of riparian vegetation and stream cover. In addition to providing valuable fish & wildlife habitat, some wetlands provide additional important watershed functions such as filtering out pollutants, maintaining summer base flow in streams, and alleviating flooding concerns along waterways. Using a DNR GIS analysis, it is estimated that there are about 3,300 acres of potentially restorable wetland (PRW) in the Mullet River Watershed. According to soil surveys, the Mullet Creek and Kettle Moraine sub-watersheds contain the highest concentrations of potentially restorable wetlands (this does not take into consideration the establishment of reed canary grass) in the watershed. The existence of lost wetlands or potentially restorable wetlands is evidence of the strong agricultural heritage in the watershed and the opportunity to work with landowners to restore these wetland communities.
7/7/2010
Loss of woodlands. Woodlands and other permanent vegetation along streams also provide habitat, water quality benefits, and cooler water temperatures. Permanent vegetation buffers runoff from adjoining lands and can capture sediment and nutrients from being delivered to waterways. It is estimated that 57% of the Mullet River and its tributaries have adequate vegetative buffers. A minimum buffer width of 50 feet was used for this estimation.
7/7/2010
Loss of riparian vegetation buffers-- The Lower Mullet and Municipal Plymouth sub-watersheds are in greatest need of additional riparian buffers, with 59% and 58%, respectably, of their 50' riparian corridors not protected by buffers. This equates to 157 acres of buffer needed in the Lower Mullet sub-watershed and 320 acres of buffer needed in the Municipal Plymouth sub-watershed. Of course, there still is room for improvement in the other sub-watersheds with 33% of the riparian corridor or 57 acres of buffers needed in the La Budde Creek sub-watershed, 27% of the riparian corridor or 109 acres of buffers needed in the Mullet Creek sub-watershed, and 23% of the riparian corridor or 62 acres of buffers needed in the Kettle Moraine sub-watershed.
7/7/2010
Population by non-native invasive species-- Today, carp and rusty crayfish are assumed to be present throughout the watershed. Zebra mussels also were found in Crystal Lake in 2001. These non-native invasive species replace native species like emerald shiners, sculpin and northern clearwater crayfish. The movement of other non-native invasive species like sea lamprey and round goby migrating up the Sheboygan River from Lake Michigan has been stopped by several dams on the Sheboygan River in Sheboygan, Kohler and Sheboygan Falls. Purple loosestrife, Eurasian water milfoil, Phragmites, reed canary grass, hybrid cattail, bush honeysuckle, garlic mustard, buckthorn, and Japanese knotweed are the primary non-native invasive plants present in the watershed. Reed canary grass is present in most wetlands in the Mullet River watershed. The degree to which the reed canary grass dominates a wetland determines the wetland restoration potential. Vegetation management by landowners and land management agencies is essential in curtailing further establishment of this invasive plant.
7/7/2010
Disruption of fish migration by dams and other barriers-- There are seven dams which fragment the Mullet River between the headwaters at Mullet Creek and its confluence with the Sheboygan River at the City of Sheboygan Falls. Although dams may serve a variety of societal purposes, including wetland restorations like the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area, they also trap sediment and pollutants, warm the water temperatures, and fragment fish populations and impede fish movement to spawning habitat. Additionally over time, impoundments formed by dams can fill in with sediment and develop water quality impairments including excessive algae or carp populations. Poorly designed culverts and other barriers such as large, natural debris dams can also interfere with fish migration. There have not been any organized efforts to assess fish passage barriers on streams within the Mullet River watershed.
7/7/2010
Lack of awareness, understanding and participation in watershed stewardship activities by individual citizens, businesses, municipalities and government agencies-- The issues facing this watershed all hinge on decisions and behaviors by individuals, businesses, municipalities and government agencies, yet there are few, if any, targeted or unified efforts to increase awareness, understanding or participation in watershed stewardship.
7/7/2010
State Hwy 23 is scheduled for reconstruction and expansion to four lanes beginning in fall 2012. The expansion will begin at County P in Sheboygan County and end at Highway 151 in Fond du Lac County, cutting through the Mullet River Watershed.
7/7/2010
State lands comprise a considerable amount of the land base of portions of this watershed and state lands management activities may have a significant impact on water quality.
7/7/2010
The large wetland complexes in the upper watershed (Mullet Creek sub-watershed) could be over-run with invasive species if not monitored and managed.
7/7/2010
The dams that were installed to restore wetlands at the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area create fish passage barriers during most of the year.
7/7/2010
Degradation of shoreland habitat along Crystal Lake impacts water quality and fish populations in the lake.
7/7/2010
Residents on Crystal Lake are concerned about decreases in water levels.
7/7/2010
Glenbeulah and Camp Evelyn dams reduce water quality conditions in the Mullet River.
7/7/2010
Glenbeulah and Camp Evelyn dams contribute to fish passage problems in the Mullet River.
7/7/2010
The Lower Mullet sub-watershed is impacted dramatically by the conversion of wetlands, riparian corridors and woodlands to agricultural use. There is a great need to increase riparian buffers to keep sediment and pollutants from entering the river.
7/7/2010
Thermal impacts are suspected in the cold-water segments of the Mullet River.
7/7/2010
Master plan updates will be made to the Northern Unit - Kettle Moraine State Forest in 2011.
7/7/2010
Lack of water quality inventory, monitoring and biological assessment data-- Throughout this watershed, there are no water quality data for 145 out of the 154 water bodies. Additional support is needed to adequately inventory, monitor and assess the water resources in this watershed.
7/7/2010
Polluted runoff from agricultural areas-- Agriculture is the dominant land use within the Mullet River Watershed. Dairy and row crop farming along with pasturing are the main types of agricultural activity within the watershed. Over the years, a number of conservation practices have been employed on farms within the watershed including contour plowing, crop rotation, nutrient management planning, designed manure storage installations, grassed waterways, filter strips, stream buffers, and barnyard runoff measures. Use of these farm practices has a beneficial impact on water quality. Traditionally, installation of agricultural conservation practices has been voluntary and some federal, state and local cost share dollars have been made available for this purpose. However, runoff from agricultural lands continues to impact water quality in the watershed and there is a need to further reduce sediment and nutrient impacts to waterways in the Mullet River watershed. Because funding for farm conservation practices is limited, these resources should be directed to the highest priority runoff areas first. The 2008 Fond du Lac County and 2009 Sheboygan County Land & Water Resource Management Plan identifies goals and a strategy for reducing runoff from agricultural land uses. It focuses on the agricultural performance standards contained in State Administrative Code NR151. The goals include reducing soil erosion, controlling animal waste runoff, and meeting nutrient management requirements.
7/7/2010
Polluted runoff and altered stream hydrology in developed areas-- Urban land uses within the watershed are relatively low (about 4%). Most of this land use is within the City of Plymouth. Even though land that contributes runoff from this category is relatively small in area in this watershed, urban runoff can have a significant negative impact to water quality. Impervious surfaces and storm sewer drains provide immediate delivery of pollutants to the waterways without any filtering capabilities. Construction sites within urban or suburban areas can also lead to significant delivery of sediment to waterways. Sediment covers habitat for fish and carries nutrients which further degrade water quality. Sheboygan County has an erosion control and stormwater ordinance for development in the unincorporated areas. The City of Sheboygan Falls has a WDNR municipal stormwater permit that includes a number of requirements to reduce pollutant loadings from storm sewers and other runoff. As part of their permit, the City of Sheboygan Falls is also required to have and implement a stormwater runoff management ordinance. The City of Plymouth is not currently required to have a WDNR municipal stormwater permit.
7/7/2010
The master plan for La Budde Creek Fishery Area will be updated in 2010/2011. This presents an opportunity to take follow-up steps to implement recommendations suggested in this plan regarding property management.
Watershed Recommendations
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to develop partnerships to encourage, train, and engage citizen monitors in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
Work with property owners to identify and prioritize dams to improve fish passage in the Mullet River Watershed, and seek funding to remove them or pursue fish passage enhancements at those dams that will remain.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
Work with the owners of the Plymouth Mill Pond dam to consider removing the dam, or if it must remain, encourage fish passage restoration, secure funding and implement projects.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
WDNR staff should follow through with the routine inspection of the New Paris dam.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
Work with the owners of the New Paris dam to consider removing the dam, or if it must remain, encourage fish passage restoration, secure funding and implement projects.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
The Department should continue to work with the City of Plymouth to address safety and water quality issues associated with the Plymouth Millpond and its dam.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Engage Volunteers in Monitoring/Restoration
 
Date
Status
Incentivize landowners, organizations, businesses, municipalities, and agencies to monitor and control aquatic and terrestrial invasive species in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Engage Volunteers in Monitoring/Restoration
 
Date
Status
Solicit volunteers for storm sewer stenciling or outfall monitoring in the City of Plymouth.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Work with the owners of the Glenbeulah Dam to consider fish passage restoration, secure funding and implement the projects.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to implement DNR fisheries management projects to improve habitat conditions in the cold water sections of the Mullet River.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Consider methods to improve fish passage at Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area, and if deemed desirable, secure funding for fish passage restoration
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Develop a fish passage restoration plan for the Mullet River Watershed or each of its sub-watersheds.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Incentivize landowners, organizations, businesses, municipalities, and agencies to identify and prioritize fish passage barriers, like dams and improperly installed culverts, in the Mullet River Watershed and seek funding for fish passage restoration.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to implement WDNR fisheries management activities to improve habitat in the cold water sections of LaBudde Creek.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Work with the owners of the Camp Evelyn Dam to consider fish passage restoration, secure funding and implement the projects.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Fond du Lac
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Sheboygan
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Develop materials that interpret watershed issues and invite target audiences to participate in specific stewardship activities in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to promote and implement the Sheboygan River Basin Partnership's Adopt-A-Stream program in the Mullet River watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Develop partnerships with formal (schools) and non-formal (nature centers, organizations, agencies) education partners in and near the Mullet River Watershed to enhance and increase watershed education efforts.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Ensure that public property managers are aware of and have access to water quality and biological assessment data that exist for the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Develop and implement educational programs designed specifically for target audiences in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Ensure that owners of dams, local governments and organizations in the Mullet River Watershed are aware of state and federal funding opportunities for dam removal and fish passage restoration.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Ensure that landowners and organizations are aware of funding opportunities to support invasive species work in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Ensure that public property managers are aware of and have access to water quality and biological assessment data that exist for the LaBudde Creek Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Provide information and education to landowners and others in the Mullet River Watershed regarding Wisconsin's new state rule (NR 40, Wisconsin Administrative Code) for identification, classification and control of invasive species.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Ensure that landowners and local organizations in the Mullet River Watershed are aware of funding opportunities for wetland restoration and management and the establishment of riparian buffers.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Information and Education
 
Date
Status
Educate City of Plymouth residents on yard care, yard waste disposal and other stormwater management practices.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Lake Management Plan Implementation
 
Date
Status
A Plymouth mill pond committee was formed and the City obtained a DNR grant to study options to improve the impoundment. Continue to work with the City on management of the Plymouth mill pond.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Master Planning
Kettle Moraine State Forest Northern Unit.
Date
Status
Ensure that issues and recommendations from the 2010 Mullet River Watershed Plan are considered during master planning and annual property planning for the Kettle Moraine State Forest Northern Unit.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Master Planning
La Budde Creek Fisheries Property
Date
Status
Ensure that issues and recommendations from the 2010 Mullet River Watershed Plan are considered during master planning and annual property planning for the La Budde Creek Fisheries Property.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Master Planning
Mullet Lake State Natural Area.
Date
Status
Ensure that issues and recommendations from the 2010 Mullet River Watershed Plan are considered during master planning and annual property planning for the Mullet Lake State Natural Area.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Master Planning
Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area.
Date
Status
Ensure that issues and recommendations from the 2010 Mullet River Watershed Plan are considered during master planning and annual property planning for the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
The water quality and fish biologists should conduct a survey of water quality water temperature and aquatic life in the coldwater section of the Mullet River to determine the factors that limit the river from reaching its full potential as a coldwater resource. Based on this information, habitat restoration will be done as needed, and as opportunities arise.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Fish Community
 
Date
Status
Endangered Resources, Fish Biologists, and Water Resources Biologists should continue to monitor the water quality and biological communities in the Mullet River for potential impacts associated with the Old Wade House Project.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Fish Tissue
Confirm FCA Crystal Lake
Date
Status
Crystal Lake confirm fish advice - previously listed water from before 2000.
10/28/2011
Proposed
Projects
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Secure funding for monitoring wetlands and waterways on public lands in the Mullet River Watershed for the presence of aquatic invasive species and implementing control measures.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Increase invasive species monitoring and control at the Mullet Creek State Wildlife Area.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Complete analysis of the WDNR 2008-2009 Plymouth storm event water quality monitoring project.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Continue to support the Crystal Lake water level studies.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Identify and assess thermal impacts in the cold-water segments of the Mullet River.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Water resources biologists should conduct sediment quality assessment in the Camp Evelyn Impoundment.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Water resources biologists should conduct sediment quality assessment in the New Paris Impoundment.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Targeted Area
 
Date
Status
Water quality biologists should conduct a stream assessment on Jackson Creek.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Identify and protect groundwater recharge areas for coldwater segments of the Mullet River.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
 
Date
Status
Identify and protect groundwater recharge areas for cold water segments of La Budde Creek.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor or Propose 303(d) Listing
 
Date
Status
Increase monitoring and assessment of Plymouth east tributary (WBIC 53600) relative to impaired water status.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor or Propose 303(d) Listing
 
Date
Status
Determine whether the Mullet River below STH 67 should be added to the impaired waters list.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor to Evaluate Projects
 
Date
Status
Water quality biologists should continue to evaluate the monitoring conducted by the State Historical Society for the Old Wade House Project on the Mullet River.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor with Baseline Survey
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to conduct water quality monitoring, inventory, and biological assessments to adequately assess the 154 water bodies in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Natural Areas Protection
 
Date
Status
Support land acquisitions from willing landowners for the proposed Mullet Lake State Natural Area, so that the area can be designated as a State Natural Area and managed to control invasive species.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Permit Compliance Inventory
 
Date
Status
Encourage a cooperative relationship with wastewater and stormwater permit holders in the Mullet River Watershed to facilitate compliance and emergency tracking and response when accidental discharges occur.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Permit Compliance Inventory
 
Date
Status
Review wastewater and stormwater permits in the Mullet River Watershed on a timely basis and facilitate operational changes to comply with changes in state law.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
 
Date
Status
Partner with the NRCS and county conservation departments to secure funding to design buffer programs that better fit the needs and desires of landowners in this area and work with landowners to install stream buffers along the Mullet River and its tributaries.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
 
Date
Status
Promote the streambank protection easement and fee program in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
 
Date
Status
Promote shoreland restoration practices among Crystal Lake shoreland owners to improve water quality and fish habitat.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
 
Date
Status
Establish county-based invasive species control programs in Fond du Lac and Sheboygan counties.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
 
Date
Status
We should assist the Sheboygan County Land Conservation Department staff in obtaining stream bank buffers along all of the streams in the county.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Restore Hydrology, Morphology
 
Date
Status
Work in cooperation with landowners to improve straightened portions of the Mullet River and restore wetlands in the area between Greenbush and Glenbeulah.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Hydrology, Morphology
 
Date
Status
We should encourage removal of dams on the Mullet River and conduct water quality and fisheries monitoring at these sites as dam removal opportunities arise.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Restore Riparian Habitat
 
Date
Status
Advance Sheboygan County's new shoreland restoration ordinance in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Collaborate with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation on wetland compensatory mitigation.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
As mandated in the new federal mitigation rule, develop a wetland restoration plan for the Mullet River Watershed that identifies priorities for flood control, wildlife habitat restoration, and criteria for prioritizing restoration projects.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Use The Nature Conservancy's 2009 wetland functions assessment and the WDNR's wetland assessment tool to plan for wetland protection and restoration in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Work to restore wetlands and riparian buffers and establish permanent vegetative cover or best management practices on agricultural lands in the headwater areas of La Budde Creek.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Promote WDNR and Wisconsin Department of Transportation wetland compensation mitigation goals related to the State Highway 23 expansion in the Mullet River Watershed in order to increase restoration of wetland acreage and functions in Fond du Lac and Sheboygan counties.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Partner with NRCS, county conservation departments, WDNR wildlife biologists and foresters to work with landowners in the Mullet River Watershed to manage existing wetlands, woodlands and other habitats established through conservation programs, and to restore key wetlands and woodlands converted to other land uses.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Runoff Evaluation
Mullet River Watershed
Date
Status
The Mullet River Watershed continues to be considered a high priority for selection of nonpoint source management projects and funding.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Enforce post construction site erosion control best management practices with emphasis on infiltration to maintain summer stream flow and thermal attributes of local streams, as per N.R. Code 216, in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Although the City of Plymouth conducts some street sweeping and storm sewer catch basin cleaning, encourage additional best practices in stormwater management and construction site erosion control to improve water quality.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Work with City of Plymouth on improving snow disposal practices and other aspects of stormwater management.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Ensure that the quantity of runoff in the Mullet River Watershed does not negatively impact waterways.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Work with the City of Plymouth, City of Sheboygan Falls and villages of Glenbeulah and Greenbush to improve stormwater management practices, especially treating runoff from impervious areas to reduce discharge of nutrients, sediment and bacteria to area waterways.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Incentivize and facilitate compliance with nutrient management and agricultural performance standards on crop land in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Incentivize landowners to maintain best management practices that have already been installed on agricultural lands in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Facilitate the adoption and enforcement of local erosion control ordinances in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Work in partnership with local units of government towards compliance with performance standards for agricultural non-point runoff contained within NR151, Wisconsin Administrative Code, in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Secure resources to increase staffing for county conservation departments and the Natural Resource Conservation Service so that they can provide individualized attention to landowners to progressively implement NR151 in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Encourage the City of Plymouth to adopt and utilize low impact development stormwater standards for new urban development.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Address animal waste runoff in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Develop databases and maps showing manure storage facilities, lands enrolled in nutrient management programs, established buffers, and lands where buffers are needed. Use this information to target and prioritize agency programs and work in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Facilitate the development and implementation of local stormwater management plans in local municipalities in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Incentivize and facilitate acceptable crop field erosion rates in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Increase awareness and use of federal, state or local agricultural cost-share programs to work with landowners to reduce non-point runoff on agricultural facilities and lands in the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Work with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), county conservation departments, WDNR foresters and wildlife biologists, and others to use available watershed assessment and planning tools to identify and prioritize key areas to address non-point runoff within the Mullet River Watershed.
9/1/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
The Department should encourage all communities to adopt construction site erosion and stormwater management ordinances and establish snow disposal policies.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Train Volunteers to Do Watercraft Inspections
 
Date
Status
7/26/2012
Proposed
Projects
 
Mullet River WatershedWater Plans and PartnershipsRead the Watershed Plan

The Mullet River Watershed Plan was updated in 2010. This plan was developed by the WDNR, UW Extension, and local partners. For more information contact Vic Pappas, WDNR Water Manager.

Date  2010

Watershed History Note

The city of Plymouth is located along the banks of the Mullet River in the center of Sheboygan County. Like many other Wisconsin communities, Plymouth started as a stagecoach stop on a Native American trail and wilderness road from Sheboygan to the interior of the state. The Mullet River was what first attracted settlers from New England and New York, shortly followed by the Germans escaping the social upheaval in their homelands. The Smith family adopted the local Native American name, Ta Quit Qui Oc, meaning "Crooked River", while Henry and Thomas Davidson named it Plymouth. The State Legislature changed the name to Ta Quit Qui Oc in 1851, but reversed itself, naming the whole settlement Plymouth a year later. Division Street is what evidence remains of the rivalry between the two factions. The arrival of the Sheboygan and Mississippi Railroad in 1859, and the Milwaukee and Northern Railroad in 1871, made Plymouth a small railroad center with an underlying agricultural economy. Local cheese factories added to this economy in the 1860's and 1870's, bringing to downtown the National Cheese Exchange, which helped to establish and influence national cheese prices. Plymouth has been known as the Hub City because of its central location and for the manufacture of wooden hubs used in early transportation. In 2002, Plymouth celebrated its 125th anniversary.

Date  2010