Watershed - Pike River (SE02)
Pike River Watershed

Details

The Pike River Watershed is located in portions of Racine and Kenosha counties, and consists of three sub-basins; the Upper Pike, Pikes Creek, and the Pike River. The Upper Pike River originates near County Highway C in the Village of Mount Pleasant. Pike Creek is a drainage way that originates near Highway 50 in Kenosha County. From there, it flows north along side the Union Pacific Railroad, picking up contributions from agriculture drainage tiles, Airport Branch, Somers Branch and other unnamed tributaries. The Upper Pike and Pike Creek meet at Petrifying Springs Park, forming the Pike River. From Petrifying Springs, the Pike River flows east, then south through the City of Kenosha before emptying into Lake Michigan. The major tributary to the Pike River is Sorenson Creek. The one named lake found in this watershed is Petrified Springs Park Pond, which covers approximately three acres. Land cover is primarily rural, with agriculture dominant (52%). Urban land uses account for 19 percent of the land area, while grasslands (14%) and forests (8%) represent the other major rural uses. Wetlands cover less than two percent of the land area. The municipalities include the City of Kenosha, the Village of Sturtevant, and the Towns of Somers and Mount Pleasant.

Date  2002

Population, Land Use

Nonpoint sources provide a tremendous load of sediment and nutrients. Both urban and rural land uses contribute TSS to the Pike River system but urban originating TSS is often to waters in this area. Forty-five (45%) of the watershed is in agricultural much nastier from a water quality standpoint that land uses. Urban nonpoint pollution is also a concern. Sediment from construction sites and the particles that accumulate on roads and parking lots wash into storm sewers or drainage swales where they contribute toxic materials and wash off phosphorus to local waterways, which cause low oxygen conditions. All of the communities in the watershed with the exception of Elmwood Park, hold WDNR Municipal Stormwater permits designed to reduce the nonpoint pollution that enters local waterways through their storm sewer system. Racine and Kenosha County, and the University of Wiscon­sin Parkside Campus are also covered under permits issued through this program. Waxdale Creek and the North Branch of the Pike River are listed as impaired due to nonpoint source problems.

Date  2010

Ecological Landscapes for Pike River Watershed

Ecological Landscapes

The Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape is located in the southeastern corner of Wisconsin along Lake Michigan. The landforms in this Ecological Landscape are characteristic of glacial lake influence, with ridge and swale topography, clay bluffs, and lake plain along Lake Michigan. Further inland, ground moraine is the dominant landform. Soils typically have a silt-loam surface overlying loamy and clayey tills. The historic vegetation in the northern part of this Ecological Landscape was dominated by sugar maple-basswood-beech forests with some oak while the southern part was dominated by oak forest, oak savanna and prairies. Wet, wet-mesic, and lake plain prairies were common in this area. Black ash and relict cedar and tamarack swamps were found in this Ecological Landscape. Today, most of the area is dominated by dairy and cash grain agriculture and intense urban development. Only about 8% of the Ecological Landscape is forested. Maple-beech forests are about half of the remaining forest types with the remainder split equally between oak-hickory and lowland hardwood forest types. There are some areas of wet-mesic and wet prairie but only small preserves remain since the landscape is heavily disturbed and fragmented. Because of this isolation, fragmentation, and high level of disturbance, non-native plants are abundant.

Date  2010

Hydrologic Features

The river has two main tributaries, the North and South Branches. The North Branch originates in a residential area in the Town of Mt. Pleasant near the junction of County Highway C and 90th Street. From this point, the river flows easterly for about one mile before turning south. Several perennial and intermittent streams, including Waxdale Creek, join this branch before it enters Petrifying Springs Park in the Town of Somers in Kenosha County. In Petrifying Springs Park the river is joined by the South Branch. This watercourse is sometimes called Pike Creek but should not be confused with the Pike Creek that drains a separate watershed just to the south in the City of Kenosha. The South Branch of the Pike River originates as a drainage way near Highway 50 in Kenosha County. From there, it flows north along the Union Pacific Railroad, picking up contributions from agriculture drainage tiles and several tributaries including Airport Branch and Somers Branch. Approximately one-quarter mile downstream from the confluence of the North and South Branches, the Pike River flows into a three-acre impoundment located within Petrifying Springs County Park. The river’s flow may be augmented by groundwater discharged from springs located within the impoundment. From Petrifying Springs County Park, the River flows generally easterly to within approximately one mile of the Lake Michigan shoreline, where it is joined from the north by Sorenson Creek, a major tributary. The river then flows southerly for about four miles until it discharges to Lake Michigan, approximately one mile north of the City of Kenosha Harbor. The Pike River acts as an estuary of Lake Michigan from its mouth to the lagoon located on the Carthage College Campus, a distance of about 1.4 miles.

Date  2010

Fisheries

Fish species found in the Pike River Watershed include yellow perch, southern redbelly dace, blacknose dace, bluegill, and largemouth bass. In addition, steelhead salmon, brown, and brook trout are present due to Lake Michigan stocking efforts. Tolerant fish species found in the watershed include the creek chub, fathead minnow, and green sunfish.

Date  2002

Pike River Watershed At-a-Glance

Impaired Water in Pike River Watershed
River and Stream QualityAll Waters in Watershed

The water quality of the 42 miles of rivers and streams in the Pike River Watershed ranges from severely degraded to good. Twenty-one miles of perennial streams (50%) are currently considered to support a Warm Water Sport Fish community. Eight miles (19%) support a Warm Water Forage Fish community. About eight miles (18%) of streams in the basin support a Limited Forage Fish community. Six miles of streams in the Pike River Watershed are listed on the state’s impaired waters (303(d)) list. These streams are the Upper Pike River and its tributary, Waxdale Creek, in the Town of Sturtevant. Streams and rivers always carry some suspended material, so a certain background level of TSS is ex-Fish species found in the Pike River Watershed include yellow perch, pected. But waterways in the Pike River watershed generally carry too much TSS. In addition, steelhead salmon, brown trout, and brook trout are present rain storms when dirt, bits of metal, and decompos­ing plant and animal material wash off the landscape due to Lake Michigan stocking efforts. Tolerant fish species found in the watershed include the creek chub, fathead minnow, and green sunfish. Because particles sink, streams receiving large amounts of solids from runoff may not seem to have a problem if TSS is measured during dry weather conditions. There are no specific advisories issued for waters in this watershed. Measurement of TSS during wet and dry weather conditions provide a more complete pic­ture of stream conditions.

Date  2010

Watershed Trout Streams
Watershed Outstanding & Exceptional Resources
River and Stream QualityAll Waters in Watershed

One major ongoing project that will impact the Pike River Watershed concerns the Mount Pleasant Drainage District #1. The District was recently issued a permit from the WDNR to reconstruct approximately 5.5 miles of the Pike River in the Town of Mount Pleasant, Racine County. The goals of this project are to remove the threat of flooding from several structures and roads in the township, and to improve water quality and fish habitat within the Upper Pike River. Elements of the project include protecting wetlands, installing buffer strips along the river and establishing an environmental corridor. Construction is slated to begin in 2002 and should take a minimum of 10 years to complete at a cost exceeding $17,000,000.

Date  2002

Watershed Trout Streams
Watershed Outstanding & Exceptional Resources

Lakes and Impoundments

The one named lake found in this watershed is Petrified Springs Park Pond, which covers approximately three acres. There are several unnamed ponds and lakes covering 81 acres.

Date  2010

Wetland Health

It is difficult to determine exactly how many acres of wetlands were in the Pike River Basin prior to European settlement. Initial state surveys conducted in the early 1800’s estimated the entire state of Wisconsin contained approximately five million wetland acres. We now know these estimates were low by about 100 percent! There are many reasons for this discrepancy. The original surveyors of the state did not use similar interpretations of what were considered wetlands, nor were the survey methods used very accurate. More recently, soil scientists estimate that Wisconsin once contained 10 million acres of wetlands. Based on evidence left behind in the soil, it’s estimated that the Pike River Watershed once supported over 4,800 wetland acres prior to Euro-American settlement. Today, the watershed contains only 351 acres -- a 93 percent wetland loss! Wetland Status The Pike River Watershed is located in portions of Racine and Kenosha counties, and consists of three sub-basins; the Upper Pike, Pikes Creek, and the Pike River. Wetlands compromise 1% of the current land uses in the watershed. It is estimated that about 7% of the original wetlands in the watershed currently exist. Of these wetlands, forested wetlands (59%) and emergent wetlands (15%), which include marshes and wet meadows, dominate the landscape. Wetland Condition Little is known about the condition of the remaining wetlands but estimates of reed canary grass infestations, an opportunistic aquatic invasive wetland plant, into different wetland types has been estimated based on satellite imagery. This information shows that reed canary grass dominates 70% of the existing emergent wetlands, which includes wet meadows and marshes, and 15% of the remaining forested wetlands. Reed Canary Grass domination inhibits successful establishment of native wetland species. Wetland Restorability Of the 4,493 acres of estimated lost wetlands in the watershed, approximately 34% are considered potentially restorable based on modeled data, including soil types, land use and land cover (Chris Smith, DNR, 2009).

Date  2010

Potentially Restorable Wetland Analysis

Impaired Waters

Just over eight miles of streams in the Pike River Watershed are considered impaired and not meeting water quality standards. These streams are the North Branch of the Pike River from its junction with the South Branch up river 5.23 miles to State Highway 20, and the entire 2.91 mile length of Waxdale Creek in the Town of Sturtevant. The North Branch of Pike Creek is listed as impaired for Fish and Aquatic Life due to degraded habitat caused by stream channelization, debrushing of streambanks, draining of wetlands, sedimentation from runoff and increased stormwater drainage due to expanding development within the watershed. Fish kills attributed to potential chlorine discharge to Waxdale Creek also affected the North Branch Pike River downstream from confluence with Waxdale Creek; however, no fish kills have been documented on the North Branch Pike River since 1990. Waxdale Creek is listed for Fish and Aquatic Life with sediment as pollutant and degraded habitat as impairment. The stream experienced a one -time fish kill in 1983 where 14,000 fish were documented killed. The kill was attributed to a spill from a point source discharging to the creek. The exact agent causing the kill was not specifically determined, but the toxicity was acute, and not chronic. No other fish kill documents were found. A stream classification survey in 1993 noted chronic water quality problems and habitat problems from nonpoint source runoff. Two additional areas are on the impaired waters list. Pennoyer Park Beach and Alford Park Beach (L.Michigan) are both listed as impaired for Recreational Uses due to elevated e.Coli values.

Date  2010

List of Impaired Waters

Groundwater

Groundwater in this area is relatively well-understood. The resource has been analyzed through groundwater flow model­ing by USGS and WGNHS with support from SEWRPC, WDNR, and other partners. This model evaluated groundwater qualityand quantity in both the shallow and deep aquifers in this area. There are deep cones of depression in the deep aquifer both to the north and the south of this area. The cities of Racine and Kenosha obtain drinking water from Lake Michigan.

Date  2010

Watershed Documents
Watershed Grants
Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
5/1/2010
Waters Involved
Hoods Creek
Status
Complete

City Of Racine: City Of Racine- Hairy Willow Control: The City of Racine will contract to remove a well established Hairy Willow Herb population in Carre-Hogle Memorial Park. The project is located in a highly disturbed shoreland wetland. The project involves cutting the Hairy Willow Herb and spraying the cut stems with glyphosate. The contractor will also search for Hairy Willow Herb in the adjacent city parks (Meyer and Simonson). The project deliverables will be a report that summarizes and evaluates the treatment along with photos of the site after treatment. The report will also relay the results of searching for Hairy Willow Herb in Meyer and Simmons parks.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
5/1/2010
Waters Involved
Lake Michigan
Status
Complete

City Of Racine: City Of Racine- Hairy Willow Control: The City of Racine will contract to remove a well established Hairy Willow Herb population in Carre-Hogle Memorial Park. The project is located in a highly disturbed shoreland wetland. The project involves cutting the Hairy Willow Herb and spraying the cut stems with glyphosate. The contractor will also search for Hairy Willow Herb in the adjacent city parks (Meyer and Simonson). The project deliverables will be a report that summarizes and evaluates the treatment along with photos of the site after treatment. The report will also relay the results of searching for Hairy Willow Herb in Meyer and Simmons parks.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
5/1/2010
Waters Involved
North Branch Pike River
Status
Complete

City Of Racine: City Of Racine- Hairy Willow Control: The City of Racine will contract to remove a well established Hairy Willow Herb population in Carre-Hogle Memorial Park. The project is located in a highly disturbed shoreland wetland. The project involves cutting the Hairy Willow Herb and spraying the cut stems with glyphosate. The contractor will also search for Hairy Willow Herb in the adjacent city parks (Meyer and Simonson). The project deliverables will be a report that summarizes and evaluates the treatment along with photos of the site after treatment. The report will also relay the results of searching for Hairy Willow Herb in Meyer and Simmons parks.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
5/1/2010
Waters Involved
Root River
Status
Complete

City Of Racine: City Of Racine- Hairy Willow Control: The City of Racine will contract to remove a well established Hairy Willow Herb population in Carre-Hogle Memorial Park. The project is located in a highly disturbed shoreland wetland. The project involves cutting the Hairy Willow Herb and spraying the cut stems with glyphosate. The contractor will also search for Hairy Willow Herb in the adjacent city parks (Meyer and Simonson). The project deliverables will be a report that summarizes and evaluates the treatment along with photos of the site after treatment. The report will also relay the results of searching for Hairy Willow Herb in Meyer and Simmons parks.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
3/22/2010
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

City Of Kenosha: Peorio Park Pond Red Swamp Crayfish Monitoring: This project will assist in multiple ways 1) Research - When do the crayfish become active enough for successful treatment, have they become established in nearby pond and an unnamed tributary of the Pike River, once chemically treated did any survive the treatment. 2) Evaluation- 20 baited traps will be set in Peorio , 15 in the two ponds north of infested pond, 10 traps in the unnamed tributary. 3) Treatment plan. Chemical treatment of the pond and burrows, timing will take place when trapping determines activity. DNR fisheries staff will do the treatment. 4) Monitoring Plan- partnering with DNR, City of Kenosha (Parks Commission) and UW-Parkside to do daily check and removal and care of live crayfish to be used for testing during the chemical treatment.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Early Detection and Response
Date
5/1/2010
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

City Of Racine: City Of Racine- Hairy Willow Control: The City of Racine will contract to remove a well established Hairy Willow Herb population in Carre-Hogle Memorial Park. The project is located in a highly disturbed shoreland wetland. The project involves cutting the Hairy Willow Herb and spraying the cut stems with glyphosate. The contractor will also search for Hairy Willow Herb in the adjacent city parks (Meyer and Simonson). The project deliverables will be a report that summarizes and evaluates the treatment along with photos of the site after treatment. The report will also relay the results of searching for Hairy Willow Herb in Meyer and Simmons parks.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Research Grant
Date
4/1/2011
Waters Involved
Pike River
Status
Complete

Mt. Pleasant Storm Water Utility District: Pike River - Glyceria Maxima Experiment: The Village of Mount Pleasant will hire two contractors to conduct an experiment regarding the chemical treatment of Glyceria maxima along the Pike River. 21 subplots measuring 2 meter by 5 meter will be studied. The study will be conducted in 2011 and 2012. Two chemicals (Aquaneat and Habitat) will be studied. Three treatment applications (spring only, late summer only, and a combined spring/late summer) will be studied as well. The project deliverable will be a report that details the following: 1) a determination of the most effective herbicide and application method to be used in this local area; 2) % cover before and after treatment for each subplot; 3) photo essay showing before, during and after treatment for the different subplots; 4) a copy of the power point presentation that will be given by the contractors at the 2012 Wisconsin Wetlands Association conference; 5) maps of any identified satellite populations.

Two paper copies and one electronic copy of the final plan will be provided to the department. Exact details for all deliverables are described in the project description of grant application.


Grant Details
Habitat
Date
10/1/2010
Waters Involved
North Branch Pike River
Status
Proposed

Pike River Wetland And Fish Habitat Restoration: This project will include habitat restoration and plantings including wetland and prairie environments, channel widening and bank stabilization, replacing culverts to aid fish passage, providing fish habitat structures, and the creation of fish spawning areas.


Grant Details
River Planning Grant
Date
7/1/2011
Waters Involved
Pike River
Status
Complete

Root-Pike Watershed Initiative Network: Pike River Watershed Restoration Planning: Root Pike WIN is proposing the development of a watershed protection plan for the Pike River. The purpose is to improve the water quality and biological integrity of the watershed. Phase 1 involves recruiting and developing a stakeholders group. This group will attend six (6) educational meetings throughout the year to learn about watershed topics relating to pollution, flooding improvement opportunities, etc.

Phase 2 will include stakeholders will work with a consultant to develop the Pike River Watershed Restoration Plan. Public information and education will be a big part of this project, including the development of a web site. The watershed protection plan and other material will be shared with local and state agencies to assist in the development and implementation of best management practices.

The strategic plan will be included with the final project report to the WDNR. Total project costs are $105,000 which includes a $10,000 grant award from the WDNR.


Monitoring & Projects

Projects including grants, restoration work and studies shown below have occurred in this watershed. Click the links below to read through the text. While these are not an exhaustive list of activities, they provide insight into the management activities happening in this watershed.

Monitoring Studies

In addition to various ongoing DNR monitoring efforts, Dr. Tim Ehlinger from the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee has conducted biological, water quality and habitat monitoring of the Pike River since 2000 (UWM 2009). His work has focused on the effects of flood control and habitat improvement effort in the North Branch. WDNR Fisheries monitoring includes a variety fieldwork to gain specific knowledge related to Wisconsin’s fish communities. The following waters have been evaluated for fish community: North Branch Pike River, Pike River, South Branch Pike River.

Date  2010

Pike River Watershed

Goals

9/23/2010
• Minimizing agricultural runoff from rural areas • Minimizing urban stormwater runoff • Protecting groundwater resources • Restoring wetlands for water quality improvement and protection • Establishing riparian buffers to protect water quality • Monitoring and controlling non-native invasive species • Obtaining water quality and biological monitoring data to adequately assess water resource conditions • Increasing citizens’ watershed awareness, understanding and stewardship activities

Priorities

9/23/2010
Water resources of the Root-Pike River Basin, and therefore the Pike River Watershed, are some of the most degraded in the State of Wisconsin. The majority of wetlands originally present have been drained or filled. Stream modifications like channel manipulation, relocation, and in some cases, enclosures have affected most of the streams in the basin. The combined effects of these modifications have led to degraded water and habitat quality throughout the watershed. The following are considered the priority issues: • Hydrological modification (ditching) • Urban runoff • Stream bank erosion
Watershed Recommendations
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
10/4/2013
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
10/4/2013
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Citizen Stream Monitoring
Date
Status
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
1/1/2012
In Progress
Projects
 
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
 
Date
Status
Support continuation of Pike River project.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Control Streambank Erosion
 
Date
Status
Pursue bank stabilization and floodplain access where practicable.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
Evaluate Kenosha Country Club dam for removal and support and encourage removal at Petrifying Springs Dam.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Easement/Buffer
 
Date
Status
Working with partners, initiate buffer installation and/or enhancement on all tributaries and drainage ways.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Fish Management, Access
 
Date
Status
Enhance and promote recreational fishing access.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Habitat Restoration - Instream
 
Date
Status
Evaluate and implement aquatic habitat restoration and water quality improvement practices where applicable.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Habitat Restoration - Upland
 
Date
Status
This project will include habitat restoration and plantings including wetland and prairie environments, channel widening and bank stabilization, replacing culverts to aid fish passage, providing fish habitat structures, and the creation of fish spawning areas.
10/1/2010
Proposed
Projects
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Kenosha
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Hire County Aquatic Invasives Coordinator
 
Date
Status
Hire Aquatic Invasives (AIS) County Coordinator - Racine
1/1/2011
Not Proposed
Projects
 
Master Planning
 
Date
Status
Pursue installation of toe protection on bluff adjacent to river at UW-Parkside.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Monitor with Baseline Survey
 
Date
Status
Conduct baseline surveys on all tributary streams within the watershed.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Hydrology, Morphology
 
Date
Status
Create bench and meanders where possible.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Riparian Habitat
 
Date
Status
Support improvements to Waxdale Creek
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Restore Wetlands
 
Date
Status
Evaluate and implement wetland restoration projects where practices are applicable.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Continue support of Storm Water Best Management Practices.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Construct a stormwater infiltration basin that would promote infiltration and filtration of stormwater to reduce or remove stormwater from running across the public beach. The infiltration basin would be constructed using natural and sustainable materials including beach sand onsite and native beach grasses to stabilize the berms constructed around the infiltration basin.
10/1/2010
Proposed
Projects
 
Water Quality Planning
SEWRPC contract 2015
Date
Status
SEWRPC is a designated planning agency for the multi-county area covering SE Wisconsin. SEWRPC's budget for this work is $1,457,765, with a fraction coming from the WDNR in the form of "pass through contracts," approximately $170-200K per year. In recent years, funding has declined due to budget cutbacks. The 2015 period covers approximately $170K of federal and state grant funding through WDNR and many thousands of dollars in local and regional funding. SEWRPC's work deliverables and contract reports are below.
1/1/2015
In Progress
Projects
 
Pike River WatershedWatershed History Note

The Pike River Watershed is located in both Kenosha and Racine counties, and within this watershed one can find the Hawthorn Hollow Nature Sanctuary and Arboretum, a 40 acre property which combines nature, history and horticulture. One of the historical buildings located on the property is the original Pike River School, built in 1847. The schoolhouse was made by hand, from oak trees, that grew in the area. The logs were milled at the saw mill, on the river, in what is now known as Petrifying Springs Park. It was there that the trees were cut into boards and used in the construction of the schoolhouse's walls, doors and windows. The total cost of the schoolhouse in 1847 was $200 and that included everything, including the glass for the windows. All the work was done by hand. All 8-grades were taught by one teacher. During this time, the children did not know about football, and baseball had not been invented yet. The teacher was called "Teacher", and not by her name. "Teacher" was a term of liking and respect. The teacher not only had to teach, she also had to be the janitor - sweep the floor and make the fire. In 1850, a teacher's salary was $11.00 a month. During the noon recess children often roamed through the woods. The girls might pick wildflowers. The boys hunted Indian arrowheads or fished in a deep bend of the creek they called The Swimming Hole. By 1905, this one room schoolhouse was too small. The 1847 one room schoolhouse was sold to a farmer who moved it to his nearby farm for storing grain. In 1967 the Hyslop Foundation paid $500.00 for the 1847 Pike River School and moved it to Hawthorn Hollow to be preserved. When Hawthorn Hollow got the school, there were wires stretched under the ceiling with ears of corn drying on them, and the writing was still on the blackboard after sixty years.

Date  2010

Water PlanningRead the Watershed Plan