Watershed - Lower Willow River (SC02)
Lower Willow River Watershed

Details

The Upper and Lower Willow watersheds are located in west-central Wisconsin in Polk and St.Croix counties. These watersheds are part of the St. Croix River Basin (which is located in both northwest Wisconsin and east Minnesota). The Willow watersheds are two of twenty-two Wisconsin watersheds in this basin. This water-rich area is sprinkled with an assortment of inland lakes, major rivers and small streams. The Lower Willow watershed is situated entirely within St. Croix County. In this watershed, the Willow mainstem flows from the City of New Richmond, through Willow River State Park, Lake Mallalieu, and then joins the St. Croix River at Hudson (in the lower 25-mile Lake St. Croix reach). The Lower Willow covers 115 square miles. Tributaries to the Lower Willow include Paperjack Creek, Tenmile Creek, the Willow River Race Branch, and other unnamed creeks. These streams, in addition to the Willow River, account for 99 stream miles in the Lower Willow watershed. There are also 2139 acres of lakes and 2482 acres of wetlands. Lakes over 100 acres in this watershed include Oakridge and Bass Lakes and three impoundments on the Willow mainstem: the New Richmond Flowage, Little Falls Lake (in Willow River State Park), and Lake Mallalieu in Hudson.

Date  2010

Population, Land Use

Population and Land Use Approximately 72% of the combined watershed areas lie in St. Croix County. This county was one of the most rapidly-growing areas in the state in the 1990s. Census date for 1990 projected a population of 50, 251 for the entire county (including other watersheds). In 2000, the county population was estimated at 63,155, which is a 26% increase over the decade. A similar increase within the Willow watersheds hydrologic boundaries would be expected over the same time period, especially with the larger communities of New Richmond and Hudson located in the watersheds. The increase was likely from new suburban and rural residential and commercial development from the expanding Twin Cities metro area in Minnesota. The percent breakdown of land use and cover throughout the two watersheds, based on 2001 National Land Use Cover data provided by the United States Geologic Survey are described below. The watersheds are very similar with agriculture being the main use in both basins (56% in the Lower Willow and 66% in the Upper). The Lower Watershed has more open water in streams and impoundments (10%), and more urban and suburban land use (totaling 5%) with the two larger communities of Hudson and New Richmond. The Upper Watershed has more agricultural land, but less urban land cover and open water. Forest and wetland percentages are nearly the same in each watershed.

Date  2010

Nonpoint and Point Sources

The Willow watersheds have been identified as major contributors of nutrients to the St.Croix River. USGS flow gaging and Wisconsin DNR monitoring were used to estimate the total load discharged from the Willow. In 1999, the monitoring showed a measured load of 24.3 tons/year, and in 2006 the loading was 20.5 tons per year. Some of the sources of nutrients cannot be controlled to any great extent, such as runoff from wetlands, uncultivated grasslands, and forestland (except through silvicultural best management practices to protect water quality). However, the majority of the land use is agriculture or urban/suburban, meaning gains can be made in reducing these impacts through improved practices. There are 4 wastewater treatment plant discharges and one cooling water discharge to surface waters in the Willow. There are also 5 large farms (Confined Animal Feeding Operations or CAFOs) and 9 facilities that discharge via seepage to groundwater.

Date  2010

Ecological Landscapes for Lower Willow River Watershed

Ecological Landscapes

The Willow watersheds are located along the boundary between two ecoregions (c.f., Omernik and Gallant, 1988): the Western Corn Belt Plains to the south, and the North Central Hardwood Forest to the north. The watersheds are characterized by nearly level to rolling glacial till plains and significant agricultural land use. The entire Willow River Watershed is located primarily in the Western Prairie Ecological Landscape on the far western edge of the state, just south of the Tension Zone; it contains the only true representative prairie potholes in the state. It is characterized by its glaciated, rolling topography and a primarily open landscape with rich prairie soils and pothole lakes, ponds, and wet depressions, except for forested areas along the St. Croix River. The climate and growing season are favorable for agricultural crops. Sandstone underlies a mosaic of soils. Silty loams that can be shallow and stony cover most of the area. Alluvial sands and peats are found in stream valleys. Historic vegetation was comprised of dry to mesic prairie grasses in the rolling areas and wet prairies in the broad depressions. Open oak savannas and barrens were found on the hilly topography, with small inclusions of sugar maple-basswood forest in small steep sites. Prairie pothole type wetlands were mainly found in St. Croix and Polk counties. Barrens were found along the river terraces of the St. Croix River. Almost half of the current vegetation is agricultural crops and almost a third of the area is grasslands, with smaller areas of open water, open wetlands, and urban areas. The major forest types are maple-basswood and oak-hickory, with smaller amounts of lowland hardwoods and lowland conifer.

Date  2010

Hydrologic Features

Karst geology (terrain usually characterized by barren, rocky ground, caves, sinkholes, underground rivers, and the absence of surface streams and lakes) is found within the watershed. The underlying limestone bedrock can be fissured and represent a threat to groundwater. There are intermittent streams that actually disappear into the ground. Careful land use practices and well construction in particular are needed in areas with karst formations.

Date  2010

Recreational Opportunities

Willow River State Park is located 5 miles northeast of Hudson. It has 2,891 acres of prairie, forests, waterfalls, and panoramic river scenery, and offers year-round recreational and scenic attractions in western Wisconsin. The park has a campground, a boat launch, and a 400-foot beach and picnic area centered on 172-acre Little Falls Lake. Willow River State Park draws more than 300,000 visitors each year. More information is available at this web address: http://dnr.wi.gov/org/land/parks/specific/willowriver/index.html. The Western Prairie Habitat Restoration Area project was established in 1999 and encompasses 350,000 acres within 15 townships in St. Croix and Polk Counties. Part of this area lies in the Willow watersheds. The acreage goal of 15,000 acres will permanently protect approximately 10% of the historic grassland acreage within the project. The project area includes prairie remnants from one of the largest prairies found in the state along with a mix of grasslands, potholes and marshes that are extremely conducive to pheasant and waterfowl production. The large, landscape scope of the project is based upon comprehensive research of biodiversity and ecosystem management practices. Restoration of viable grasslands and wetlands to provide habitat for waterfowl, pheasants and grassland birds is the primary objective of the project. The intent is to widely scatter suitable habitat throughout the area, rather than concentrating the habitat in one place. Reductions in habitat quality and quantity because of land use changes have contributed to the decline of grassland nesting wildlife populations. In addition, wetland loss and degradation has been an important factor in the decline of many wetland wildlife species. Ten species of birds known to occur in this area are state-listed as endangered or threatened and 19 species are listed as special concern. The area also includes 54 rare plant species, 18 of which are state-listed endangered or threatened. This web address provides more complete information: http://dnr.wi.gov/org/land/wildlife/wphra/ Discovery Farms (University of Wisconsin-Extension) is conducting a program in the Willow River watersheds to demonstrate a relationship between changes in land management and improvements in water quality. The work underway includes identification of critical, heavy-loading sites; evaluation of level of risk for agricultural fields; helping farmers make changes that protect water quality; and nutrient management plan preparation. The project also includes monitoring edge of field water quality and education on nutrient management and the links between agriculture and natural resources in the local area. Here is the link to their website: http://fyi.uwex.edu/discoveryfarms/

Date  2010

Fisheries

There are several Class II and Class III trout waters in this watershed (all in St. Croix County: Black Brook (Polk County); the North Fork, South Fork and mainstem of the Willow; the Willow Race Branch; Hutton Creek; 10-Mile Creek; and Hennesy Springs. The best trout water is found on the Willow downstream of Little Falls Lake, but the stream suffers from elevated water temperatures and nutrients from the top water discharge at the upstream flowage dam. Class I trout waters support natural reproduction, whereas Class II trout waters have some natural reproduction but re­quire supplemental stocking. Class III waters have no natural reproduction and rely on stocking for a trout fishery. More information and maps are available at this web address: http://dnr.wi.gov/fi sh/species/trout/streamclassifi cation.html

Date  2010

Lower Willow River Watershed At-a-Glance

Impaired Water in Lower Willow River Watershed
River and Stream QualityAll Waters in Watershed

The Willow watersheds are valued resources, particularly for fishing and recreation. Willow River State Park is located on lands along the Willow mainstem in the lower watershed, and includes the Willow River gorge and waterfalls and Little Falls Lake. The water quality of the streams and Willow mainstem is impacted by agricultural, urban, suburban, and rural non-point source runoff. Loss of soil from cropland, farmyards, parking lots, and other impervious surfaces results in sediment, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and other pollutants entering the surface waters of the watershed. Fish Consumption Advice Specific fish consumption advice for PCBs is in place for Saint Croix River. For more information see: http://dnr.wi.gov/fish/consumption/ Trout Streams There are several Class II and Class III trout waters in these watersheds (all in St. Croix County except as noted): Black Brook (Polk County); the North Fork, South Fork and mainstem of the Willow; the Willow Race Branch; Wolf Creek; Hutton Creek; 10-Mile Creek; and Hennesy Springs. The best trout water is found on the Willow downstream of Little Falls Lake, but the stream suffers from elevated water temperatures and nutrients from the top water discharge at the upstream flowage dam. The upper mainstem of the Willow (also called the North Fork) is Class III / II trout water. The subwatershed is heavily influenced by wetlands and agriculture. The fishery leans toward tolerant, warmwater species. There is a small section of Class II trout water in Cylon Wildlife Area that supports a remnant population of wild brook trout. Better conservation practices would benefit water quality in the headwaters. The South Fork of the Willow is Class II brook trout water. There is a small section of stream between the mouth and STH 63 that could be listed as Class I. The headwater (upstream of STH 63) temperature and water quality suffers from flooding, intensive agriculture and wetland influence. Dry Run Creek (an intermittent stream) floods several times a year. Improving agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) to prevent soil erosion and nutrient runoff is a high priority for the headwaters of this subwatershed.

Date  2010

Watershed Trout Streams
Watershed Outstanding & Exceptional Resources

Lakes and Impoundments

Impoundments Presently, there are three impoundments on the Willow (Table 3): the New Richmond Flowage (also called the “Wide­spread”), Little Falls Lake (impoundment in Willow River State Park), and Lake Mallalieu at Hudson. Prior to 1992, there were two additional dams forming impoundments upstream of Little Falls Lake, the Willow Falls dam (removed in 1992) and the dam forming Mound Pond (removed in 1997). Little Falls Flowage is located within Willow River State Park. It is considered eutrophic and suffers from algae blooms during the summer months. The aquatic vegetation in Little Falls Flowage consists of 14 different species, of which 2 are non-native species -- Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus). The most common species are water stargrass, (Heteranthera dubia) coontail, (Ceratphyllum demersum), common waterweed (Elodea canndensis), and slender naiad (Najas flexilis). In the lake’s watershed the primary land use is agriculture and suburban home sites, along with municipal and industrial developments in Clear Lake and New Richmond. Nonpoint agricultural runoff, in combination with municipal and industrial inputs, contributes sediments and nutrients to Little Falls Flowage, causing water quality deterio­ration. Little Falls Flowage has a high-quality, self-sustaining, sport fishery. Abundant populations of largemouth bass, small-mouth bass, northern pike and yellow perch are present, in addition to smaller populations of bluegill and black crappie. The average size distribution of game and panfish are above normal. The New Richmond Flowage suffers from excessive nutrients, and is a shallow weed infested waterbody. Most of the fl owage is 5 feet deep and is plagued with fine sediment deposition. The fine sediment obviously comes from the headwater region of the watershed. The 236 acre flowage shifts the thermal regime toward warmwater until groundwater becomes more prevalent downstream within Willow River State Park. Lake Mallalieu is a 270 acre flowage near the mouth of the Willow River. The Willow River is the only inlet stream to Lake Mallalieu. The first dam was constructed in forming the lake in 1848. The present dam was constructed in 1934 after the former had washed out in April of that year. Lake Mallalieu has a maximum water depth of 17 feet with a mean depth of 5 feet. The watershed’s primary land use is urban/residential, agriculture and woodlands. Lake Mallalieu is considered to be a hypereutrophic lake with poor water quality due to high nutrient levels, high algal concentrations, and poor water clarity. There were a total of 24 species of aquatic plants found in Lake Mallalieu during the 1998 survey (Konkel 1999). Included were three non-native species: Lythrym salicaria (purple loosestrife), Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil), and Potamogeton crispus (curly-leaf pondweed). Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural operations throughout the watershed has been contributing phosphorous and nitrogen loading, adding to subsequent water quality deterioration. Lake Mallalieu has an abundant source of large woody debris along certain parts of the flowage. Residential and shoreline development has eliminated large woody debris and natural vegetative buffers in numerous locations throughout the lake. Many shoreline lots have been converted to limestone rip-rap, which has been proven to benefi t young smallmouth bass, but may also fail to provide both juvenile and adult fish cover for most other fish species. Preservation of large woody debris and natural shoreline buffers consisting of emergent and submergent plant beds, trees, shrubs, grasses and forbs will assure survival of healthy fish and aquatic life resources. Despite these impacts, Lake Mallalieu currently provides an abundant and diverse sportfish community. Both large-mouth and smallmouth bass fishing is excellent with many trophy bass present. Northern pike densities are low; however, the size distribution is well above average. Panfish populations are good but growth rates and large adult densities are lower than expected for small fertile fl owages.

Date  2010

Wetland Health

Wetland Condition Little is known about the condition of the remaining wetlands but estimates of reed canary grass infestations, an opportunistic aquatic invasive wetland plant, into different wetland types has been estimated based on satellite imagery. This information shows that reed canary grass dominates 63% of the existing emergent wetlands and 24% of the remaining shrub wetlands. Reed Canary Grass domination inhibits successful establishment of native wetland species.

Date  2010

Impaired Waters

Lake Mallalieu and a segment of the Willow River below New Richmond are listed as impaired. Lake Mallalieu is impaired due to total phosphorus levels from non-point source pollution, causing eutrophication and algal blooms. The approximate two-mile long segment of the Willow mainstem (from 100th Street to 140th Avenue) is listed as impaired for low dissolved oxygen, caused by Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and phosphorus. In addition to the Willow River and Mallalieu Lake, the Saint Croix River is listed for contaminated fish tissue caused by PCBs, and Lake St. Croix is listed for eutrophication due to total phosphorus concentrations. TMDL Underway Because of impairments in Lake Mallalieu at the end of the Willow watershed, a nutrient-based Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) effort is presently underway to address phosphorus loading throughout the entire watershed (SC02 and SC03). TMDLs for reduction of phosphorus loadings are also underway across the entire St. Croix Basin and all waters tributary to Lake St.Croix and Lake Pepin in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Completing the Willow TMDL report and TMDL Implementation Plan are priorities for the entire Willow watershed. The TMDL will set a goal for phosphorus loading reduction, in order to see an expected improvement in water quality in Lake Mallalieu (particularly lower densities of algae, improved Secchi depth readings, and less frequent nuisance algal blooms). Phosphorus reduction goals will be set for both point and non-point sources. Lake St. Croix comprises the lower 25 miles of the St. Croix River mainstem, from Stillwater, Minnesota to Prescott, Wisconsin. With increasing frequency and intensity of algal blooms in Lake St. Croix, the both states have listed the lake as a nutrient- impaired water. With the Willow being one of the tributaries that empties directly into Lake St. Croix, and one of the heaviest loading watersheds to the lake, it is imperative that significant phosphorus reductions be achieved in the Willow. Lake Mallalieu is listed as impaired. This lake is an impounded portion of the Willow mainstem, and is formed by a dam near the river mouth in Hudson. A TMDL and Implementation Plan are under development at the time of this plan was written. Preliminary projections call for a 40 % reduction of phosphorus overall to lower the in-lake phosphorus concentration from 65.5 ug/L (2006 measured level) to 45 ug/L. This represents a drop from 24.3 tons per year entering Lake Mallalieu to 12.3 tons/year. This goal and percent reduction are subject to change based on public review and comment on the draft TMDL when available. The draft Willow River/Lake Mallalieu and Lake St. Croix TMDL reports will include mass limitations for the significant dischargers of phosphorus to the watershed. In the Willow, the main dischargers are the two larger municipalities, Clear Lake and New Richmond. Significant reductions will be needed by contributors of non-point source runoff as well.

Date  2010

List of Impaired Waters

Groundwater

Groundwater is an important, yet often undervalued resource in the Willow River watersheds, and the entire St. Croix Basin, as it is the sole source of drinking water to residents in the Basin and recharges over 100 trout streams and countless lakes within the watershed. Once contaminated, groundwater may take many years and potentially large monetary resources to clean.

Date  2010

Watershed Documents
Watershed Grants
Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Control
Date
4/15/2015
Waters Involved
Oak Ridge Lake
Status
Complete

Friends Of The St Croix Wetlands Mngmnt Dist: Fscwmd Cattails: The Friends of the St. Croix Wetland Management District proposes to coordinate with USFWS to reduce infestations of hybrid Cattail on Oak Ridge Lake and associated wetlands in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include: a) USFWS consulting, b) chemical treatment, c) infestation mapping, d) final report.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Control
Date
4/15/2015
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

Friends Of The St Croix Wetlands Mngmnt Dist: Fscwmd Cattails: The Friends of the St. Croix Wetland Management District proposes to coordinate with USFWS to reduce infestations of hybrid Cattail on Oak Ridge Lake and associated wetlands in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include: a) USFWS consulting, b) chemical treatment, c) infestation mapping, d) final report.


Grant Details
Aquatic Invasives Research Grant
Date
4/1/2012
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

Golden Sands Rc&D: Weevil Rearing 2&3: Golden Sands RC&D proposes to continue it Milfoil Weevil Mass Rearing Study, building on past work on the Holcombe Flowage in Rusk and Chippewa Counties, and expanding its studies to Perch Lake Wissota in St. Croix County, and the Minong Flowage in Douglas and Washburn Counties. Major project elements to include: 1) Volunteer group training, 2) Weevil acquisition, rearing, and release 3) Sample collection and analysis, 4) development of a comprehensive biological control manual, and 5) Final report.


Grant Details
Clean Boats, Clean Waters
Date
2/15/2016
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: The Bass Lake Rehabilitation District is sponsoring a Clean Boats Clean Waters project in 2016 at one public boat landing on Bass Lake.


Grant Details
Clean Boats, Clean Waters
Date
2/15/2017
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Bass Lake Rehabilitation District 2017 Cbcw: Bass Lake Rehabilitation District is sponsoring a Clean Boats Clean Waters project in 2017 at 1 single public boat landings and 0 public boat landing pairs on BASS LAKE.


Grant Details
ARRA Pass Through Project
Date
10/6/2010
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
In_Progress

Arra 16 Lake Mallalieu/Willow River Tmdl Grant 2p-00e73201: Develop a TMDL implementation plan for Lake Mallalieu/Willow River.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/1995
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Lco-Bass Lake Ordinance Enhansement - County Zoning Position: St. Croix County proposes to hire a half time staff person for five years who will be located in the County Zoning office and will perform the following zoning ordinance enhancement activities for the Bass Lake area:

1. Review and revise permits and other data gathering forms.
2. Review and revise permit issuance procedures.
3. Develop septic certification procedures for home additiond and improvements.
4. Assist the County/townships with developing and implementing tasks 1 - 3.
5. Assist the developing and implementing inspection and enforcement procedures; assist county and townships with implementation.
6. Assist the townships in improving record keeping methods in relation to land ownership changes and property development.
7. Identify and implement training needed for town and county regulators.
8. Assist with bringing sites with zoning violations into compliance with shoreland zoning regulations.
9. Assist in implementing recommendations that follow from the septic plume groundwater study.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
4/15/2017
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Lmi-Bass Lake Management Plan Implementation: : Bass Lake Management District is sponsoring a Lake Management Planning Implementation project aimed at reducing phosphorus loads and protecting and improving diverse aquatic life through shoreland restoration projects and BMP installations.

Project activities include: Conduct site analysis and design for storm water runoff management, fisheries, and shoreland restoration practices. Provide technical assistance to develop designs and how-to information (DIY and/or landscapers). Establish and install BMP at demonstration sites. Promote installation of shoreland best management practices using demonstration sites as examples. Install 40 fish cribs.

Project deliverables: All data collected, a list and map of demonstration sites and fish cribs, before and after photos of restoration sites, individual site analysis reports, all outreach and event materials, agendas and minutes from advisory committee meetings.

Special conditions: WDNR Lakes Management Coordinator will be provided with an electronic (pdf or word) copy of all data and maps from the project. This scope summarizes the project detail provided in the application and does not negate tasks/deliverables described therein. Data, records, and reports, including GIS-based maps, and digital images, must be submitted to the Department in a format specified by the regional Lakes Coordinator.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/2005
Waters Involved
Hatfield Lake
Status
Complete

City Of New Richmond: Acq-Hatfield Lake Acquisition: The City of New Richmond proposes to purchase the 75.67 acre Carpenter Family parcel on Hatfield Lake in St. Croix County for Lake Protection purposes. Major project elements to include 1) acquisition costs and, 2) associated acquisition costs.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
1/27/1997
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Acq-St. Croix County Perch Lake Acquisition: St. Croix County shall participate in the Lake Protection Grant Program by purchasing approximately 67.05 acres of land in the Perch Lake watershed for lake protection purposes.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/1997
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Acq-St. Croix County Perch Lake Acquisitioin Ii: St. Croix County will acquire 19.8 acres with all rights to land onPerch Lake that will expsnd it's day-use park called Homestead PArklands. The county purchase of the Onstott property will include 100 feet of shoreline at the north end of the property on Perch Lake.

268 feet of shoreline on Perch Lake at the south end of the Onstott property will be protected with the purchase of a conservation easement on 9.2 acres of the property. This prroperty will be referred to as the conservation easement.

These two acquisitions will protect an additional 368 feet of lake front giving more protection to Perch Lake and better management of the ecosystem.


Grant Details
Lake Protection Grant
Date
9/1/1999
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Res-St. Croix Co Homestead Parklands On Perch Lake: St. Croix Co. proposes to construct a main park entrance road, one-way park access roads to and from Perch Lake, six parking areas and two infiltration basins. Grading and erosion control measures are designed to protect the water quality of Perch Lake.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1996
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Bass Lake Flood Mitigation Planning - Mapping: The Bass Lake Rehabilitation District proposes to perform the mapping phase of flood mitigation planning for Bass Lake. A map will be produced suitable for use in the plan development phase. The sponsor will disseminate information about the project results to the public by newsletter, public meeting, and local newspaper article. The sponsor will also provide the Department of Natural Resources with a paper copy and an electronic copy of the project's final report. END.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1996
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Bass Lake Flood Mitigation Planning - Plan Development: The Bass Lake Rehabilitation District proposes to prepare a flood mitigation plan for Bass Lake. Project activities include identifying structures, property, and septic systems below a set elevation, identifying acquisition and relocation costs, and identifying alternatives to maintain lake elevation above an established elevation. The sponsor will prepare a final report summarizing the project results and provide the Department of Natural Resources with a paper copy and an electronic copy of the report. The sponsor will also disseminate information to the public about the project by newsletter, public meeting, local newspaper article, and the Flood Mitigation Plan. end.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2008
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

Bass Lake Rehabilitation District: Bass Plan Update: The Bass Lake Rehabilitation District proposes to develop a plan to improve water quality, habitat and recreational use of Bass Lake in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include: 1) formation of planning team, 2) socialogical survey, 3) review of existing data and ordinances 4) land use mapping, 5) plan development.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
2/15/2015
Waters Involved
Bass Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Perch Plan, Bass Update: The St. Croix County Community Development Department proposes to create a comprehensive management plan for Perch Lake and update the management plan for Bass Lake. Major project elements to include: 1) Sociological survey, 2) Review of existing studies, 3) Updated land use mapping, 4) Ordinance review, 5) Plan development, update, 6) Final report.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/1998
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Nutrient Mon. Phase 1: St. Croix County LCD proposes to contract with the US Geological Survey to measure nutrient loading in Lake St. Croix tributaries. Yhis project represents Phase One of five planned. Project activities will include 1) Measurement of nitrogen, phosphorous, chlorides and sediment loadings in the Kinnickinnic, Willow and Apple Rivers from Oct. 1, 1998 to Sept. 30, 1999. Seasonal and weekly loadings will be provided for nitrogen, phosphorous, chlorides, and sediments. The data will be distributed via internet and annual reports by the US Geological Survey, and will be made available electronically to the Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/1998
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Nutrient Mon. Phase 2: St. Croix County LCD proposes to contract with the US Geological Survey to measure nutrient loading in Lake St. Croix tributaries. This project represents Phase Two of five planned. Project activities will include 1) Stream flow guaging on the Kinnickinnic, Willow and Apple Rivers from Oct. 1, 1998 to Sept. 30, 1999. 2) Weekly sampling for nutrients and sedments. The data will be distributed via internet and annual reports by the US Geological Survey, and will be made available electronically to the Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1999
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Nutrient Mon. Phase 3: St. Croix County LCD proposes to contract with the US Geological Survey to measure nutrient loading in Lake St. Croix tributaries. This project represents Phase Three of five planned. Project activities will include 1) Stream flow guaging on the Kinnickinnic, Willow and Apple Rivers. 2) Weekly sampling for nutrients and sedments. The data will be distributed via internet and annual reports by the US Geological Survey, and will be made available electronically to the Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/1999
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Nutrient Monitoring, Model And Plan, Phase 5: St. Croix County LCD proposes to contract with the US Geological Survey to measure nutrient loading in Lake St. Croix tributaries. This project represents Phase Four of five planned. Project activities will include 1) Stream flow guaging on the Kinnickinnic, Willow and Apple Rivers. 2) Weekly sampling for nutrients and sedments. The data will be distributed via internet and annual reports by the US Geological Survey, and will be made available electronically to the Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/1999
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Nutrient Monitoring, Modeling & Plan Phase 4: St. Croix County LCD proposes to contract with the US Geological Survey to measure nutrient loading in Lake St. Croix tributaries. This project represents Phase Four of five planned. Project activities will include 1) Stream flow guaging on the Kinnickinnic, Willow and Apple Rivers. 2) Weekly sampling for nutrients and sedments. The data will be distributed via internet and annual reports by the US Geological Survey, and will be made available electronically to the Department of Natural Resources and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2001
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

City Of Prescott: Lake St.Croix Planning Project- Phase Ii: The objectives of Phase II of this planning project include such things as:
1. Preserver and enhance storm water quality
2. Preserve the natural and beneficial functions of the natural drainage
3. Solve/ prevent runoff problems
4. Solve drainage problems
5. Develop City storm water management ordinance.

The DNR will be provided with both a paper copy and an electronic copy of the final report. Information will be disseminated to the public as described in the grant application.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2001
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

City Of Prescott: Lake St.Croix Planning Project-Phase 1: The primary goal of the project is to improve water in Lake St.Croix through inventory, testing, modeling, and analysis of hydrologic and biological data, which will provide a foundation for development of a lake/watershed and water quality management master plan (LWMMP) for the City of Prescott, Wisconsin. The project goals include:
1. Meetings
2. Background Data Collection
3. Field Reconnaissance Survey
4. Field Data Collection/ Inventory Work
5. Define Drainage basins
6. Categorize and Map Land Uses
7. Identify Existing Biological Communities
8. Identify Existing Biological Communities
9. Characterize the Quality of Stormwater Discharges

The DNR will be provided with both a paper copy and an electronic copy of the final report. Information will be disseminated to the public as described in the grant application.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2002
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

City Of Prescott: Lake St.Croix Planning Project - Phase Iii: The City of Prescott proposes to finsh out the work that has been done in previous grants and phases. The project activity includes the final report.

The Department will be provided with both a paper and electronic copy of the final report.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
12/20/1990
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

City Of Hudson: Lake Mallalieu Water Quality Data Collection & Analysis: 1) Comprehensive mapping of Lake Mallalieu drainage basin topography (including slopes analysis), soils, and land uses, (as described on pgs. 2-3 of 'professional services description' in application). 2) Update bathymetric map of lake, (map will beused as base for aquatic plant survey). 3) Research existing law and enforcement alternatives related to septic systems. 4) Pursue existing research into groundwater pollution. 5) Water quality monitoring to be conducted at one site during springturnover and five times during the summer (June - Sept.). Sampling parameters and protocol as described on pgs. 1-3 of Barr Engineering proposal in application. In addition fecal coliform sampling is to be conducted with each monitoring session (totalof 6 times). 6) Detailed macrophyte survey will be done according to DNR protocols and shall include mapping of the distribution of purple loosestrife within the lake and its riparian borders. 7) Maintain public awareness through Lakes Associationnewsletter, periodic attendance at public meetings, and newspaper and TV an/or radio press releases. 8) Prepare and distribute interim general report to include all data collected during project. Data reporting format to be worked out in consultation


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1998
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

Lake Mallalieu Association: Lake Mallalieu Lake Management Plan: The Lake Mallalieu Association proposes to develop a comprehensive lake management plan for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County. The project activities include; 1) Develop lake management plan, 2) Conduct in-lake water quality assessments, and 3) Begin to develop watershed management strategies. The Department of Natural Resources will be provied with both a aperp copy and an electronic copy of the final report. The project results will be disseminated to the public by public meetings, news letters, fact sheets, public display of final report. A comprehensive management plan will be completed and available to the public for review.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1999
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

Lake Mallalieu Association: Lake Mallalieu Water Quality Plan: The Lake Mallalieu Association proposes to develop water quality goals and strategies for Lake Mallalieu. Major project elements to include: 1) water quality sampling and analysis, 2) sediment core sampling and analysis, 3) development of nutrient loading/water quality model for the impoundment, 4) establishment of goals and strategies, and 5) integration of report into overall lake management plan. The Department of Natural Resources will be provided both paper and electronic copies of the report. Project results will be shared with the public through newsletter mailings, public meetings and local press articles. Copies of the report will also be made available at local government offices and libraries.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

City Of Hudson: Mallalieu Stormwater Assessment: The City of Hudson proposes to deliniate the storm sewershed for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County and to study the feasibility of stormwater treatment alternatives. Major project elements to include: 1) Storm sewer inventory and mapping, 2) Modeling, assessement and treatment selection, 3) reports and meetings to share information.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2010
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Mallalieu Lake Plan 1: The St. Croix Co. Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to develop a lake management plan for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include:
1) Stakeholder group, 2) Surveys, 3) Soil sampling, 4) Land use inventory, 5) Plan development, 6) Ordinance development and enactment.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2010
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Mallalieu Lake Plan 2: The St. Croix Co. Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to develop a storm water action plan for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include: 1) Stakeholders group, 2) Surveys, 3) Monitoring, 4) Outreach/Plan Implementation


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
5/5/1995
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Bass, Perch, Squaw, Baldwin Pine Lake Mgmt Planning-Phase 2: 1) Create display-siz plan maps and graphics. 2) Rewrite county zoning ordinances with improved administrative procedures and an expanded list of available zoning districts to match the planning policy areas established by the plan. 3) Develop newtown level zoning maps with appropriate zoning districts, in digital and hard copy format. 4) Develop a Citizen's Guide. 5) Prepare a final report which will include the tasks listed above. 6) The grantee will disseminate information to the publicby newsletter mailings, entire report mailings, public meetings, a comprehensive management plan, and a Community Workshop Series. The grantee will provide the Department of Natural Resources with a paper copy and an electronic copy of the final report.Project results will be reposited at the St. Croix Government Center and the Land Conservation Department in Baldwin.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
5/5/1995
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Bass, Perch, Squaw, Baldwin Pine Lakes Managemt Plan-Phase 1: Obtain data and maps in digital format for the Priority Watershed Project in St. Croix County involving Bass, Perch, Squaw, and Baldwin Pine Lakes. Complete a St. Croix County Development Management Plan Document with report level maps and graphics indigital and hard copy format. Complete Development Management Plan maps delineating the planning areas and the goals, objectives and policies for each planning area. Disseminate information to the public by newsletter mailings, entire report mailings, public meetings, a comprehensive management plan, and a Community Workshop Series.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/1997
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Perch Lake Land Management Planning: St. Croix County proposes to develop a long term land management plan for 67 acres located on Perch Lake. The plan will detail the best way to protect and enhance the lake's water quality and correct existing water quality problems related to the property.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/1997
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Perch Lake Land Management I-Ii: St. Croix County proposes to do a land use study to minimize any impact to Perch Lake. The plan will detail the best use of the land while protecting and enhancing water quality on the lake. The Department of Natural Resources will be provided with both a paper copy and an electronic copy of the final report. The project results will be disseminated to the public by summary, newsletter and final full report mailing(s), public meeting(s) and local newspaper articles. A final comprehensive management plan will be completed and available to the public for view.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
2/15/2015
Waters Involved
Perch Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Perch Plan, Bass Update: The St. Croix County Community Development Department proposes to create a comprehensive management plan for Perch Lake and update the management plan for Bass Lake. Major project elements to include: 1) Sociological survey, 2) Review of existing studies, 3) Updated land use mapping, 4) Ordinance review, 5) Plan development, update, 6) Final report.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2004
Waters Involved
Saint Croix River
Status
Complete

River Country Rc&D Council, Inc: Green Development Conference: River Country RC&D proposes to conduct a conference entitled "The Nuts and Bolts of Green Development" in conjunction with the St. Croix Basin Partnership Team. Objective of the conference and associated bus tours will be to provide riparian owners, interested citizens, and municipal operators and engineers with information useful to the development of small-scale and community-wide stormwater management practices.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2004
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

River Country Rc&D Council, Inc: Green Development Conference: River Country RC&D proposes to conduct a conference entitled "The Nuts and Bolts of Green Development" in conjunction with the St. Croix Basin Partnership Team. Objective of the conference and associated bus tours will be to provide riparian owners, interested citizens, and municipal operators and engineers with information useful to the development of small-scale and community-wide stormwater management practices.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2006
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
Complete

City Of Hudson: Mallalieu Stormwater Assessment: The City of Hudson proposes to deliniate the storm sewershed for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County and to study the feasibility of stormwater treatment alternatives. Major project elements to include: 1) Storm sewer inventory and mapping, 2) Modeling, assessement and treatment selection, 3) reports and meetings to share information.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2010
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Mallalieu Lake Plan 1: The St. Croix Co. Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to develop a lake management plan for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include:
1) Stakeholder group, 2) Surveys, 3) Soil sampling, 4) Land use inventory, 5) Plan development, 6) Ordinance development and enactment.


Grant Details
Large Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2010
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: Mallalieu Lake Plan 2: The St. Croix Co. Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to develop a storm water action plan for Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County. Major project elements to include: 1) Stakeholders group, 2) Surveys, 3) Monitoring, 4) Outreach/Plan Implementation


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2002
Waters Involved
Lake Saint Croix
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix River Nutrient & Sediment Conference: A one-day educational conference on reducing and managing nutrients and sediments in Lake St. Croix is proposed for February 2003 at Trollhaugen in Dresser, WI, for a targeted audience of approximately 130-140 wastewater treatment managers, local officials and water resource professionals. The goal is to educate, network and to obtain input in pollution budgeting.

The DNR will be provided with both a paper copy and an electronic copy of the final report. Information will be disseminated to the public as described in the grant application.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2007
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '07: St. Croix County LWCD proposes to conduct its annual nutrient and sediment loading conference to protect Lake Mallalieu and others within the St. Croix Watershed. Major project elements to include guest presenters and consulting services.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2007
Waters Involved
Mallalieu Lake
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '08: The St. Croix County Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference to enhance lake management and watershed protection with Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County and the St. Croix River basin. Major project elements to include: a) conference planning, b) presentation development.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2003
Waters Involved
Saint Croix River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Nutrient River Conference: St. Croix County Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to sponsor a conference in Februrary of 2004 to identify and begin to address factors contributing to the pollution of Lake St. Croix. The goal is to bring together wastewater treatment managers, local officials, water resource professionals, land developers and watershed manager to allow networking and sharing of information associated with nutrient and sediment loading in the lake. The DNR will be provided with both a paper copy and electronic copy of the final report.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2004
Waters Involved
Saint Croix River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Conference: St Croix County proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference relating to the protection and management of Lake St. Croix.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2006
Waters Involved
Saint Croix River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '06: St. Croix County proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference relating to the protection and management of Lake St. Croix. Major project elements to include: 1) conference costs associated with printing mailing, provision of lunch and transportation, 2) staff coordination.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2003
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Nutrient River Conference: St. Croix County Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to sponsor a conference in Februrary of 2004 to identify and begin to address factors contributing to the pollution of Lake St. Croix. The goal is to bring together wastewater treatment managers, local officials, water resource professionals, land developers and watershed manager to allow networking and sharing of information associated with nutrient and sediment loading in the lake. The DNR will be provided with both a paper copy and electronic copy of the final report.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2004
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Basin Conference: St Croix County proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference relating to the protection and management of Lake St. Croix.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2006
Waters Involved
Unnamed
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '06: St. Croix County proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference relating to the protection and management of Lake St. Croix. Major project elements to include: 1) conference costs associated with printing mailing, provision of lunch and transportation, 2) staff coordination.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
4/1/2007
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '07: St. Croix County LWCD proposes to conduct its annual nutrient and sediment loading conference to protect Lake Mallalieu and others within the St. Croix Watershed. Major project elements to include guest presenters and consulting services.


Grant Details
Small Scale Lake Planning
Date
10/1/2007
Waters Involved
Willow River
Status
Complete

St. Croix County: St. Croix Conference '08: The St. Croix County Land and Water Conservation Department proposes to sponsor an informational and educational conference to enhance lake management and watershed protection with Lake Mallalieu in St. Croix County and the St. Croix River basin. Major project elements to include: a) conference planning, b) presentation development.


Monitoring & Projects

Projects including grants, restoration work and studies shown below have occurred in this watershed. Click the links below to read through the text. While these are not an exhaustive list of activities, they provide insight into the management activities happening in this watershed.

Monitoring Studies

Lakes Baseline Trends Monitoring is being conducted for many of the Willow River watersheds’ lakes. In addition, monitoring designed to target high priority waters and issue areas is also underway. Stream water quality monitoring covering primarily biological, chemical, and habitat related monitoring to deter­mine ambient conditions at “pour point” locations for each of state’s 330 watersheds. Loon monitoring is also being conducted on Bass Lake, Oak Ridge Lake, and Perch Lake. The Citizen Lake Monitoring Network, the core of the Wiscon­sin Lakes Partnership, involves over 1000 citizen volunteers statewide. The goals are to collect high quality data, to educate and empower volunteers, and to share this data and knowledge. Volunteers measure water clarity, using the Secchi Disk method, as an indicator of water quality. This information is then used to determine the lakes trophic state. Volunteers may also collect chemistry, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, as well as identify and map plants, watch for the first appearance of Eurasian Water Milfoil near boat landings, or or alert officials about zebra mussel invasions on Wisconsin lakes. This network is also conducting ice observations on Lake Mallalieu. Fisheries projects include a wide variety of “baseline” monitoring and targeted fieldwork to gain specific knowl­edge related to Wisconsin’s fish communities. A study of the Lake Mallileau fisheries was conducted and a report published in 2001 by the WDNR.

Date  2010

Grants and Management Projects
Lower Willow River Watershed

Goals

8/18/2010
Non-point source pollution needs to be addressed in order for needed improvements in water quality to be realized. Water quality has been heavily affected over the past 100 years by nutrient and sediment loading. County and state efforts should focus on preventing further deterioration of water quality through promoting appropriate land use practices in the watershed. This is not a small task and will take a well-planned, long-term effort to make a difference.

Priorities

8/14/2010
Due to a significant level of non-point source pollution, the Upper Willow watershed was established (in 1981) as a priority watershed as part of the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement Program. Some of the major water quality concerns included sediment deposition, protection of ground water resources from contamination though sink holes, and a reduction in the potential for fish toxicity from ammonia by controlling livestock waste entering the streams. Addressing non-point source runoff from both rural and urban sources remains a high priority in both of these watersheds and throughout the basin.
Watershed Recommendations
Action Migrated from WATERS
 
Date
Status
Conduct a water quality assessment in the St. Croix River to determine if sources of PCB's are present. Three procedures that may be applicable for the river are deployment of caged fish, lipid bags and hexane bags (Type B).
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Dam Safety or Removal
 
Date
Status
The Department should give consideration when the New Richmond Dam is rebuilt to installing a structure capable of both top and bottom draw. This flexibility may be useful in correcting the dissolved oxygen problems observed at Hwy 64 by reducing the amount of algae delivered to the stream. Without correction of the river oxygen problem, future expansion of the New Richmond WWTP may be more difficult and costly (Type B).
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Easement/Buffer
 
Date
Status
Restoring buffer strips on the margins of cropland and streambanks, as well as shoreline buffer zones are important steps in protecting water quality and improving shoreline and littoral habitat.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Habitat Restoration - Upland
 
Date
Status
Working to reduce agricultural land use in dry run streams - or ephemeral streams - would help reduce agricultural related runoff and would also reduce negative changes in the watershed’s natural hydrologic flows.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Lakes Protection Grant
 
Date
Status
Perch Lake should be considered a high priority to receive lake protection grants for the protection of environmentally sensitive lands. which will facilitate water quality protection.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Fish Tissue
Confirm FCA: IW pre-2000 data
Date
Status
2601400 name St Croix River TMDL ID 618 Start Mile 17.43 End Mile 44.29
11/21/2011
Proposed
 
Monitor Fish Tissue
 
Date
Status
Continue to sample for fish PCB and mercury tissue analysis (Type B).
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Monitor Watershed (Status,Sources,Impairments)
 
Date
Status
Basic waters inventory monitoring should be conducted on the seven waters so designated in this watershed.
1/1/2010
Verify
Projects
 
Monitor with Baseline Survey
 
Date
Status
WDNR should participate in any interstate water quality assessments in Lake St. Croix.
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Runoff Grant
 
Date
Status
The Bass Lake watershed should be considered a high priority for selection as a priority lakes project in the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement Program (Type B).
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
 
Date
Status
Urban runoff and stormwater management are important, regardless of the size of the community. A portion of the City of Hudson’s stormwater collection system drains to Lake Mallalieu. Best management practices to capture, infiltrate, and clarify stormwater should be implemented in each of the communities in the Upper and Lower Willow. Improved practices for construction site erosion control are needed in the both the urban, industrial, commercial and rural sectors.
10/6/2010
In Progress
 
TMDL Development
Lake Mallalieu TMDL
Date
Status
Lake Mallalieu TMDL Development
1/1/2012
In Progress
 
TMDL Implementatoin
Lake Mallalieu TMDL
Date
Status
Lake Mallalieu TMDL Implementation
12/31/2012
In Progress
Projects
Documents
 
TMDL Implementatoin
Lake St. Croix TMDL
Date
Status
Cropland runoff should be addressed to lower the export of nutrients and sediments. This will benefit all tributary streams, lakes, the Willow mainstem, and downstream waters such as the St. Croix River (Lake St. Croix). This is being addressed through development of the Lake Mallalieu TMDL Implementation Plan.
10/6/2010
In Progress
 
TMDL Implementatoin
Willow River TMDL
Date
Status
On agricultural lands, conservation tillage, lowering soil test phosphorus, nutrient management to match fertilizer addition to crop need, along with careful manure handling are important agricultural best management practices that will help achieve the non-point source reduction. Improved agricultural management practices are especially recommended for the headwaters reaches and tributaries of both the North and South Forks of the Willow.
10/6/2010
In Progress
Projects
 
TMDL Implementatoin
St. Croix River
Date
Status
Move the TMDL from draft to approved and begin implementation.
2/1/2007
In Progress
Projects
 
Wastewater Monitoring, Management
 
Date
Status
Optimizing removal of phosphorus at point source discharges is also important, particularly from the communities of Clear Lake and New Richmond, as well as at other smaller, surface water discharging communities and industries.
10/6/2010
Proposed
 
Wastewater Monitoring, Management
 
Date
Status
A wasteload assimilation study under summer low flow conditions should be conducted by DNR WRM in the vicinity of the New Richmond WWTP in anticipation of WWTP expansion to accommodate growth in the region. The potential for impact extending into the downstream trout fishery and overlap with the sanitary district discharge at Boardman should be addressed (Type B).
1/1/2010
Verify
 
Lower Willow River WatershedWater Plans and PartnershipsRead the Watershed Plan

A watershed plan has been updated for this watershed in 2010 and is now available for review.

Date  2010

Watershed History Note

The Willow River was featured in a famous court case that confirmed the public's right to use the waters of the state. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 declared that all navigable waters in the territory would remain 'forever free,' held in trust for all people of the United States. When Wisconsin became a state, it adopted this concept into its constitution. Subsequent court cases upheld the provision. During the 1890's, a group of private sportsmen bought up land along the Willow River. They claimed the sole and exclusive right to fish there, on the grounds that most of the year the Willow was too shallow to be navigable. When locals ignored their claim, the club's complaints to the sheriff resulted in more than 40 trespass citations, most of which were dismissed. One local farmer, logger and fisherman, named Frank Wellesley Wade, insisted on pressing the issue. Ultimately, the St. Croix County Court ruled that, even though navigable only during high water in spring, the Willow was nonetheless considered a public waterway. Willow River Club versus Wade was subsequently upheld by the Wisconsin and US Supreme Courts. It became a landmark case in confirming what is today known as the Public Trust Doctrine, maintaining that the waters of the state belong to all citizens regardless of who owns the shoreline.

Date  2010

Watershed History Note

The Lower Willow River watershed runs south from the city of New Richmond to the St. Croix River in St. Croix County. By 1830, logging and wheat farming were common in the Willow River Valley. The river was invaluable, as logs were floated downstream to the St. Croix. A German immigrant, Christian Burkhardt, realized the river could also be harnessed for the latter industry, and built a grist mill here in 1868. Burkhardt became a wealthy landowner and followed developments in the water-powered industry. He traveled home to Germany to examine hydroelectric power plants and returned in 1891 to build his own on the Willow River. Burkhardt eventually built four power plants and dams on the river, which provided electricity to Hudson. Northern States Power purchased Burkhardt's power company in 1945 and operated its sites until 1963, when damage to one of the plants from a lightning strike prompted the company to liquidate their Willow River holdings. In 1967, Northern States Power sold the land to the Wisconsin Conservation Commission for a state park, and stabilized the dams at a financial loss. The state park opened in 1971. Some of the dams were removed in the 1990s to improve the scenery and trout fishery, and now only one remains. The land is still being restored from damming and farming.

Date  2010