Spring Brook, Springbrook Creek Watershed (CW21)
Spring Brook, Springbrook Creek Watershed (CW21)
Spring Brook Creek (1440800)
4.77 Miles
14.59 - 19.36
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Coldwater
Year Last Monitored
This date represents the most recent date of water quality monitoring stored in the SWIMS system. Additional field surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2017
Unknown
 
Langlade
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Yes
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
Yes
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
No

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Cold (Class I Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species through natural reproduction. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Cold (Class I Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species through natural reproduction. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Cold
Streams capable of supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.

Overview

Spring Brook, a 19 mile long stream, flows southwesterly through Antigo before joining the Eau Claire River in northeast Marathon County. The stream is intermittent in the headwaters and spring-fed in the Antigo Flats area. There are no perennial feeder streams associated with Spring Brook.

Spring Brook is classified as a Class I trout stream for 17 of its 19 miles. The segment of stream not considered Class I trout stream lacks quality habitat, experiences warmer water temperatures, and exhibits poor dissolved oxygen conditions. This stretch of stream is classified as a warm water sport and forage fishery. Spring Brook is not reaching its highest potential use due to pollution form nonpoint sources. Eroding croplands and improperly managed livestock operation are the major sources of nonpoint pollution in the watershed.

Date  2002

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Spring Brook, Springbrook Creek Watershed (CW21) Fish and Aquatic LifeSpring Brook, Springbrook Creek Watershed (CW21) RecreationSpring Brook, Springbrook Creek Watershed (CW21) Fish Consumption

General Condition

Spring Brook is not reaching its highest potential use due to pollution form nonpoint sources. Eroding croplands and improperly managed livestock operation are the major sources of nonpoint pollution in the watershed. Two 10 Year Median Macroinvertebrate IBI Values on the impaired waters stretch are fair on the downstream strech and poor on the upper portions of the impaired waters stretch.

Date  2011

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.

Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.

Reports

Recommendations

Monitor Aquatic Biology
AU 18345, poor mIBI, Station 343062
Runoff Grant
Spring Brook Watershed should remain a high priority for future grant eligibility under the State Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement Program.
Monitor Targeted Area
Stream sediment and water should be collected for bioassessment toxicity testing above and below the old coal gas plant.
Fish Management, Access
DNR Fisheries Management should look into developing some type of restricted harvest regulation so the quality and trophy brook trout fishing is maintained on Spring Brook.
Restore Wetlands
DNR Staff should determine the cause of excessive plant growth (Reed Canary Grass) below Antigo and evaluate control options and conduct dissolved oxygen studies.
Stormwater Planning, Implementation
Encourage the use of rain gardens and rain barrels in the City of Antigo.
Information and Education
Inform the public of habitat loss and the impacts of those losses upon fish and wildlife populations, water quality, flood control and the quality of life.
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
Educate the public concerning shoreline preservation and restoration.
Information and Education
Educate the public on the installation and use of rain gardens and rain barrels.
Monitor with Baseline Survey
Sediment monitoring should be conducted in Spring Brook, and tested for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Volatile Organic Compounds and metals.
Monitor to Evaluate Projects
DNR Water Resources and R & R Programs should continue to monitor water quality during the clean-up phase of contaminated soils associated with the old coal gasification plant adjacent to Spring Brook.
Restore Riparian Habitat
DNR Staff should continue to pursue land acquisition or leases along Spring Brook for streambank protection and habitat improvement.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Spring Brook is located in the Springbrook Creek watershed which is 69.77 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (62%), forest (25%) and a mix of suburban (9%) and other uses (4%). This watershed has 99.73 stream miles, 65.96 lake acres and 977.95 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Medium for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Spring Brook Creek is considered a Coldwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Fisheries & Habitat

Spring Brook is classified as a Class I trout stream for 17 of its 19 miles. The segment of stream not considered Class I trout stream lacks quality habitat, experiences warmer water temperatures, and exhibits poor dissolved oxygen conditions. This stretch of stream is classified as a warm water sport and forage fishery.

Date  2011

Author   Aquatic Biologist

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