Long Lake, East and West Branches Milwaukee River Watershed (MI06)
Long Lake, East and West Branches Milwaukee River Watershed (MI06)
Long Lake Kettle Moraine St. Park North Beach (38700)
0.33 Miles
0 - 0
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Deep Lowland
Year Last Monitored
This date represents the most recent date of water quality monitoring stored in the SWIMS system. Additional field surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2017
Unknown
 
Fond du Lac
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
No
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
No

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Deep Lowland
Deep lowland lake describes the depth and location of the lake in a watershed. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - waters that do not have a specific use designation subcategory assigned but which are considered fishable, swimmable waters.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Default FAL
Fish and Aquatic Life - Default Waters do not have a specific use designation subcategory but are considered fishable, swimmable waters.

Historical Description

Source: 1969, Surface Water Resources of Fond du Lac County

Long Lake, T14N, R19E, Sections 13, 24
Surface Acres = 427, S.D.F. = 1.76, Maximum Depth = 47 feet
This is the largest, and easily the most important lake in
the county from all aspects of water-based recreation (excluding
Lake Winnebago). Over 8,000 feet of frontage is in public
ownership as part of the Kettle Moraine State Forest.
The lake was enlarged to its present size in about 1860, by
construction of a dam with approximately a head of 6 feet on the
outlet stream. Most of the east, (State forest) and parts of the
west shores were marsh prior to the dam, and this marsh is now a
3' - 4' "shelf" about 200 feet wide with a sharp dropoff at the
original shoreline. Water supply for the lake is Watercress
Creek, a brook trout stream, plus several other feeders carrying
surface runoff. A small 17 acre lake, (Tittle Lake) lies between
the mouth of Watercress Creek and Long Lake proper, and is
connected to Long Lake via a short, shallow, relatively narrow
channel. At the outlet dam a shallow, vegetation filled flowage
of 12 acres lies between the dam and the lake proper, and is
connected to the lake by a shallow channel about 200 yards long.
Downstream from the dam, the stream is designated as the East
Branch of the Milwaukee River. The water remains clear
throughout the year, despite the lake's fertility. This
contributes to fine swimming, water skiing, boating, and fishing.
Several hundred state forest campsites, an excellent swimming
beach with bathhouse, and picnic and boat launching facilities,
are developed on state property.
The west shore of the lake adjacent to State Highway No.67,
plus the northeast shoreline is developed intensively for summer
cottages plus a resort and three boat liveries. The west shore
of Tittle Lake is similarly developed with cottages and one
resort. The north end of Long Lake and the entire west shore of
Tittle Lake is owned by the Milwaukee Council of the Boy Scouts
of America, and is developed as "Camp Long Lake."
Due to its long, narrow nature, the lake is well suited to
and heavily used by water skiers. This conflicts with daytime
fishing, but skiing hours are limited to 9-5 pm.
There are about 200 acres of marsh-swamp associated with
Long Lake and Watercress Creek, which offer valuable habitat for
furbearers, frogs, and ducks. Wood duck, bluewing teal, and

mallard are known to nest in this area, but the limited hunting
on the lake is mostly for coot and diving ducks.
Fish populations have been described in various reports as
exceptional and excellent. Particularly impressive is the
average size and variety of fish which can be taken. No fish
have been stocked since 1954, and surveys as recently as 1963
have shown no need for stocking in the forseeable future.
Primary game fish species are walleye, northern pike, and
largemouth bass, with perch, bluegill, black crappie, and
bullhead offering panfishing. Carp are present, but do not
constitute a problem at this time.

Date  1969

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Long Lake, East and West Branches Milwaukee River Watershed (MI06) Fish and Aquatic LifeLong Lake, East and West Branches Milwaukee River Watershed (MI06) RecreationLong Lake, East and West Branches Milwaukee River Watershed (MI06) Fish Consumption

General Condition

Long Lake South Beach, Kettle Moraine SF - Northern Unit was assessed for the 2018 listing cycle; E. coli data sample data were clearly below the 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use. This beach was meeting this designated use and was not considered impaired.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Impaired Waters

Long Lake (38700) was placed on the impaired waters list for Mercury in fish tissue in 1998. This water was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle; total phosphorus and chlorophyll sample data were clearly below 2016 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Recreation use and Fish and Aquatic Life use. This water was also assessed for chlorides and sample data were clearly below 2016 WisCALM chronic and acute listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. This lake is considered impaired for Fish Consumption use and meeting REC and FAL uses.

Date  2015

Author  Aaron Larson

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.

Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.

Reports

Recommendations

Monitor Fish Tissue

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Long Lake is located in the East and West Branches Milwaukee River watershed which is 266.00 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (52%), wetland (19%) and a mix of forest (15%) and other uses (13%). This watershed has 312.44 stream miles, 2,023.13 lake acres and 32,107.47 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, High for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Long Lake Kettle Moraine St. Park North Beach is considered a Deep Lowland under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Deep lowland lake describes the depth and location of the lake in a watershed. These variables affect the lakes response to watershed variables.