Spring Creek, Lake Wisconsin Watershed (LW19)
Spring Creek, Lake Wisconsin Watershed (LW19)
Lodi Creek (1261900)
8.28 Miles
0 - 8.28
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Coldwater, Cool-Cold Mainstem
Year Last Monitored
This date represents the most recent date of water quality monitoring stored in the SWIMS system. Additional field surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2016
Good
 
Columbia
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Yes
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
No

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
Cold (Class II Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L through natural reproduction and selective propagation. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Cold (Class II Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L through natural reproduction and selective propagation. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Cold
Streams capable of supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.

Overview

Spring Creek flows into Lake Wisconsin in Columbia County. It is Class II trout stream and the four miles of Class II in Dane County are considered an exceptional resource water (ERW). The stream flows through the Lodi Marsh State Wildlife Area above Lodi and is well buffered from agricultural impacts. Downstream of Lodi, the stream has experienced a decline in the natural reproduction of trout, which has been a cause of concern. Although significant spawning does occur in the riffles within the city limits, the stream has been straightened and lacks suitable hiding cover for fingerling fish. The WDNR has made efforts to address this problem and have completed a total of about one mile of stream habitat improvement work on
different sections. In addition, a 15" minimum size limit has increased the number of 12" to 14" and 15" fish on the lower section of the stream. Additional habitat improvement along the stream on village park lands would help to improve this problem. Soil loss in the town of Lodi has been estimated at 6.1 tons per acre per year. This addition of soil to the stream,
combined with sedimentation due to bank erosion and inputs from nearby barnyards can potentially cause more problems in the stream. One further threat to the creek is the result of the tremendous growth in the Town and City of Lodi. Housing and industrial development has increased in the past 5 years. This development contributes a large volume of stormwater to the stream and is a major source of nonpoint source pollution. Spring Creek receives point source discharge from both a municipal and industrial source. The City of Lodi has recently renovated their treatment plant.From:

Ripp, Coreen, Koperski, Cindy and Folstad, Jason. 2002. The State of the Lower Wisconsin River Basin. PUBL WT-559-2002. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  2002

Author  Cynthia Koperski

Historical Description

Spring Creek flows into Lake Wisconsin in Columbia County. It is Class II trout stream for 10 miles of its length (WDNR, 1980). The four miles of Class II in Dane County were nominated for exceptional resource water status under the state's antidegradation rules (WDNR, 1991). The stream flows through the Lodi Marsh State Wildlife Area above Lodi and is well buffered front agricultural impacts. Downstream of Lodi, sedimentation occurs due to bank erosion. Runoff from nearby barnyards may be a problem. The average annual soil loss for the town of Lodi, through which the stream flows, is 6.1 tons per acre per year (Kidney, 1987). An irrigation pipeline carrying process wastewater from a canning factory broke in 1991. About 6,000 gallons of wastewater reached the
stream. No known damage to the fishery of the stream occurred (WDNR, 1991).

Date  1994

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Historical Description

Spring Creek originates in northern Dane Township and flows north into Columbia County where it joins the Wisconsin River. In Dane County it drains 23 square miles of pasture and marsh, where it has a much lower gradient of 3.4 ft/mlie. There are no inputs of municipal or industrial wastes to Spring Creek, but pastureland runoff, erosion, and associated livestock-related damage are problems that affect the creek (Dane Cty. Reg. Plann. Comm. 1979a}.

Lodi Marsh, which adjoins the creek, is one of Dane County's most diverse wetlands. There are several springs within the marsh and further downstream that supply the creek with cool water (Dane Cty. Reg. Plonn. Comm. 1979a). The lower part of the creek is managed for trout and has a Class II rating. Lack of a gravel substrate prohibits natural reproduction. The DNR owns 1,002 acres of marshland and uplands in this watershed (including land in Columbia County) which provide excellent access. Waterfowl, pheasant, and furbearer production is good in the Lodi Marsh; thus, hunting and trapping are popular sports. Fish species: brown trout, central mudminnow, northern and southern redbelly dace, fathead minnow, creek chub, pearl dace, white sucker, brook stickleback, and mottled sculpin.

Spring Creek (Lodi Creek, Lodi Marsh Creek) (Dane Township) -T9N, R8E, Sec. 4, Surface acres = 4, Length = 3.5 miles, Stream order = II, Gradient = 41.3 ft/mile, Base discharge = 5 cfs. From: Day, Elizabeth A.; Grzebieniak, Gayle P.; Osterby, Kurt M.; and Brynildson, Clifford L., 1985. Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of Dane County, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  1985

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Historical Description

Spring Creek (Lodi) T10N, R8E, Section 17, Surface Acres = 27.20, Miles = 8.0, Gradient = 6.50 feet per mile. A spring-fed stream which originates in a marshy area in Dane County and flows through Lodi to Lake Wisconsin. Private fish hatcheries have capitalized on several of the main feeder-springs downstream from Lodi; however, water quality remains suitable for a good population of brown and rainbow trout. These species are stocked annually to complement the native reproduction of brook trout. The Conservation Department owns over 393 acres in Dane County on this stream, most of which is marshland to be managed for upland game. About 735 acres of non-wooded marshland border the stream in Columbia.

From: Poff, Ronald J. and C.W. Threinen, 1965. Surface Water Resources of Columbia County: Lake and Stream Classification Project. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Madison, WI.

Date  1965

Author   Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin

Spring Creek, Lake Wisconsin Watershed (LW19) Fish and Aquatic LifeSpring Creek, Lake Wisconsin Watershed (LW19) RecreationSpring Creek, Lake Wisconsin Watershed (LW19) Fish Consumption

General Condition

The Spring Creek was assessed during the 2018 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data may have exceeded the 2018 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. Available biological data did not indicate impairment (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the "poor" condition category). Chloride and temperature data clearly met thresholds. This water was meeting this designated use and not considered impaired.

Date  2017

Author  Amanda Smith

General Condition

Spring Creek monitoring for fish and habitat between 2008 and 2012 shows that the stream is meeting designated use as Cold Class II trout stream, and in general the stream is in good to excellent health based on Fish IBI and qualitative habitat scores. Three major tributaries were also monitored, but are not in as good health as the main channel.

Date  2013

Author  Jean Unmuth

General Condition

Spring Creek is listed as a natural community cool-cold transition headwater, while the south tributary and Bohlman Branch are cold headwater streams. The thermal criteria set forth in state standards for cold water streams lists the maximum instantaneous temperature as <25 degrees Celsius, while the cool water maximum instantaneous temperature criteria is 25-28 degrees Celsius. Average water temperatures were well below the thermal criteria for Spring Creek and its tributaries, and within the preferred temperature range for trout. Maximum temperatures at all sites were below the thermal criteria. The highest water temperature of 23.9 occurred at Site 1 (Riddle Road) above the City of Lodi. Air temperatures on this date were also the highest documented over the entire sampling period.

Date  2010

Author  Jean Unmuth

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.

Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.

Reports

Recommendations

Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Monitor Water Quality or Sediment
Category 2. Assessed as a cold stream instead of warm-small. Sites are not representative of the stream and therefore no change. 2018 TP Results: May Exceed. Station: 10039888. AU: 13504.
Watershed Mapping or Assessment
Review of Existing Information, Develop Model, Planning Meetings, Preliminary Watershed Scope/Analysis and Reporting Data review that will be carried out by UWSP staff and supervisors.

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Monitoring Studies

The Friends of Scenic Lodi Valley are interested in protecting the stream and have proposed a citizen stream monitoring program. Monitoring was conducted in 1999 and 2000 to collect some baseline data for this project. Fisheries surveys found several cold water indicator species in the creek and a few pollution intolerant species, but overall, there were more pollution tolerant species (white suckers and creek chubs) than other species. Similarly, macroinvertebrates collected were indicative of good quality water, yet below the city, the macroinvertebrates collected were indicative of stream disturbance, which could potentially be attributed to urban stormwater runoff from the City of Lodi.

To assist them with their efforts to protect and improve Spring Creek, the Friends of the Scenic Lodi Valley have received a River Planning Grant. The grant will help them to organize a stream monitoring network. The monitors will gather valuable information that will help to evaluate the overall health of the stream. The Friends plan on using the grant to conduct a watershed assessment to identify potential pollution sources and inventory land use
near the stream. The grant is a cooperative project between the City of Lodi, the WDNR, Trout Unlimited, Lodi Canning and the Friends of the Scenic Lodi Valley.

Ripp, Coreen, Koperski, Cindy and Folstad, Jason. 2002. The State of the Lower Wisconsin River Basin. PUBL WT-559-2002. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Date  2002

Author  Cynthia Koperski

Watershed Characteristics

Spring Creek is located in the Lake Wisconsin watershed which is 214.96 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (54%), forest (25%) and a mix of open (7%) and other uses (14%). This watershed has 299.58 stream miles, 521.55 lake acres and 6,644.90 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked Medium for runoff impacts on streams, Low for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Lodi Creek is considered a Coldwater, Cool-Cold Mainstem under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Cool (Cold-Transition) Mainstem streams are moderate-to-large but still wadeable perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are common to absent, mainstem species are abundant to common, and river species are common to absent.

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