Fish and Aquatic Life
Garfoot Creek - This 3.8-mile tributary flows into Black Earth Creek a few miles west of Cross Plains. Although changes to the stream bed have occurred and nonpoint source pollution has affected fish habitat, this creek supports cold water aquatic communities and is listed as an exceptional resource water (ERW). Overall, Garfoot Creek is in pretty good shape and is improving due to the Priority Watershed Project.
The cold spring fed waters support brown trout and access is available from bridges and WDNR properties. Recently, wild brook trout have been stocked into this stream in an effort to establish a naturally reproducing population. The creek has been surveyed as a part of the WDNR's baseline monitoring effort. In addition, a cursory habitat evaluation was conducted during the summer of 2001. The evaluation found the creek to have good in-stream habitat. Erosion and other nonpoint sources of pollution from the surrounding watershed were noted,but not thought to be major problems.
Author Cynthia Koperski
Garfoot Creek -T7N, R7E, Sec. 5, Surface acres= 2.5, Length = 3 miles, Stream order = II, Gradient = 32.0 ft/mile, Base discharge = 3.5 cfs.
Garfoot Creek is a small, sprlng-fed tributary to Black Earth Creek. Its watershed Is dominated by firm pasture and upland hardwoods. The creek's bottom is mostly gravel, silt, sand, and rocks. Many small farm ponds are located along the stream and a few stretches have been straightened. Water quality is good although overgrazing is a problem. Since it is a Class II trout stream, 1,500 fingerling brown trout are stocked annually in the lower reaches, and good natural reproduction occurs in the upper portion. In-stream cover is good. The Department of Natural Resources, with help from the Youth Conservation Corps, completed an extensive habitat improvement project in 1978. Funding was provided by trout stamp revenues. Public lands border the stream near its mouth and a 0.67-mile stretch upstream from Garfoot Road is under a fish management easement. Access is available at three road crossings. Pheasants, rabbits, and furbearers have been observed. Trapping for muskrats is quite intenslve on the state-owned part of the stream. Fish species: sculpin, brown trout, common shiner, creek chub, white sucker, largemouth bass, and mottled Sculpin.
From: Day Elizabeth A.; Grzebieniak, Gayle P.; Osterby, Kurt M.; and Brynildson, Clifford L., 1985. Lake and Stream Classification Project. Surface Water Resources of Dane County, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI
Author Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin
Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.
Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.
Citizen-Based Stream Monitoring
Collect chemical, physical, and/or biological water quality data to assess the current overall stream health. The data can inform management decisions and may be used to identify impaired waters for biennial lists.
Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable
Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.
Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.
Grants and Management Projects
|WBIC||Official Waterbody Name||Station ID||Station Name||Earliest Fieldwork Date||Latest Fieldwork Date||View Station||View Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10009428||Garfoot Creek At Observatory Ridge Rd.||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10010708||Garfoot Creek - Garfoot Creek At Cty Kp Pop. Est.||4/29/1985||4/18/2014||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10011671||Garfoot Creek - Barnyard Crossing Upstream 242 M To End Of Station||10/28/1996||10/28/1996||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||133337||Garfoot Creek at Garfoot Rd||5/14/1986||5/13/2015||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10011214||Garfoot Creek - Garfoot Creek Cty Kp Tu Demo||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10011672||Garfoot Creek - Garfoot Creek End Of Station #4 Upstream 150 M To End Of Station||10/28/1996||10/28/1996||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10013388||Garfoot Creek 3||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||133439||Garfoot Creek at Garfoot And Observatory Rds||5/14/1986||5/18/2013||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10034794||Garfoot Creek - Schoep Farm Crossing||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10011668||Garfoot Creek - Lower Cattle Crossing Upstream 80 M To Barnyard Crossing||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10010795||Garfoot Creek - Garfoot Creek Fishery Area Above Observatory Road||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10013387||Garfoot Creek 1-2||4/29/1985||3/29/1996||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10009427||Garfoot Creek At Cth Kp||5/4/1992||1/13/2012||Map||Data|
|1249900||Garfoot Creek||10034909||Garfoot Creek at Braun Rd||Map||Data|
Garfoot Creek is located in the Black Earth Creek watershed which is 105.20 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (55%), forest (34%) and a mix of suburban (7%) and other uses (4%). This watershed has 196.86 stream miles, 204.29 lake acres and 1,541.75 wetland acres.
Nonpoint Source Characteristics
This watershed is ranked Not Available for runoff impacts on streams, Not Available for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.