Fish and Aquatic Life
This stream is a spring and seepage-fed Class II trout stream. A cursory habitat evaluation
was conducted on the creek in the summer of 2001. The evaluation found habitat in the Little
Willow Creek to be of good quality. The creek does experience some slight to moderate
erosion and also receives nonpoint sources of pollution, but overall, the creek has good
bottom substrate, and a variety of riffles and pools.
Despite the adequate in-stream habitat in the creek, the stream is considered to have impaired
water quality partially as a result of nonpoint problems. Specifically, there are some large
farms in the in the drainage area that may be contributing nutrients to the creek. In addition,
streambank grazing may be a problem. The stream has been hydrologically modified and
portions of the stream were channelized. This modification has had a negative effect on instream
habitat. Overall, the stream is considered a high priority for nonpoint source pollution
From: Ripp, Coreen, Koperski, Cindy and Folstad, Jason. 2002. The State of the Lower Wisconsin River Basin. PUBL WT-559-2002. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.
Author Cynthia Koperski
This stream is a spring and seepage-fed Class II trout stream (WDNR, 1980). There are
some large farms in the drainage area and streambank grazing may be a problem (Kerr,
1991). The potential for soil erosion and water quality problems due to livestock are
considered to be high (Eagan, 1985). Portions of the stream were channelized, affecting
Author Surface Water Inventory Of Wisconsin
The 2018 assessments of Little Willow Creek (miles 0-7.73) showed continued impairment by temperature; new temperature sample data exceeded the 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. Based on the most updated information, no change in the existing impaired waters listing was needed.
Author Ashley Beranek
This water was assessed during the 2016 listing cycle; total phosphorus sample data exceed 2016 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, available biological data do not indicate impairment (i.e. no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the "poor" condition category). Temperature data exceeded 2016 WisCALM listing thresholds for the Fish and Aquatic Life use.
Author Aaron Larson
Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.
Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.
Little Willow Creek (1221300) TMDL
TMDL (USEPA) Approved
After a full and complete review, EPA finds that the TMDL submitted for Little Willow Creek satisfies all of the elements of an approvable TMDL. This approval addresses one
segment for sedimentation, Water Body ID (WBID) 1221300.
Protect Riparian or Shorelands
The watershed should be considered as an EQIP project or some other nonpoint source pollution reduction project to control sources of nonpoint pollution. Specific targets for practices, such as through the Targeted Runoff Management program, (TRM), include Happy Hollow, Jacquish Hollow, Little Willow, Lost Hollow, School Section Hollow and Wheat Hollow Creeks.
Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable
Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.
Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.
Grants and Management Projects
|WBIC||Official Waterbody Name||Station ID||Station Name||Earliest Fieldwork Date||Latest Fieldwork Date||View Station||View Data|
|1221300||Little Willow Creek||10012345||Near Hwy Nn Private Property||6/7/2006||11/15/2006||Map||Data|
|1221300||Little Willow Creek||10029627||Little Willow Cr. Station 3 at Coop Woods Rd||1/1/2015||1/1/2015||Map||Data|
Little Willow Creek is located in the Willow Creek watershed which is 153.08 mi². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (46%), forest (44%) and a mix of suburban (5%) and other uses (4%). This watershed has 339.41 stream miles, 64.58 lake acres and 3,605.43 wetland acres.
Nonpoint Source Characteristics
This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Low for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.