Campground Creek, Fond du Lac River Watershed (UF03)
Campground Creek, Fond du Lac River Watershed (UF03)
Byron Creek (137400)
5.59 Miles
1.67 - 7.26
Natural Community
Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.
Coldwater, Cool-Cold Headwater, Cool-Warm Headwater
Year Last Monitored
This date represents the most recent date of water quality monitoring stored in the SWIMS system. Additional field surveys for fish and habitat may be available subsequent to this date.
2015
Poor
 
This river is impaired
Low DO, Elevated Water Temperature, Degraded Habitat, Impairment Unknown
Total Phosphorus, Sediment/Total Suspended Solids
 
Fond du Lac
Trout Water 
Trout Waters are represented by Class I, Class II or Class III waters. These classes have specific ecological characteristics and management actions associated with them. For more information regarding Trout Classifications, see the Fisheries Trout Class Webpages.
Yes
Outstanding or Exceptional 
Wisconsin has designated many of the state's highest quality waters as Outstanding Resource Waters (ORWs) or Exceptional Resource Waters (ERWs). Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. These designations are intended to meet federal Clean Water Act obligations requiring Wisconsin to adopt an 'antidegradation' policy that is designed to prevent any lowering of water quality - especially in those waters having significant ecological or cultural value.
No
Impaired Water 
A water is polluted or 'impaired' if it does not support full use by humans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic life and it is shown that one or more of the pollutant criteria are not met.
Yes

Fish and Aquatic Life

Current Use
The use the water currently supports. This is not a designation or classification; it is based on the current condition of the water. Information in this column is not designed for, and should not be used for, regulatory purposes.
WWFF
Streams capable of supporting a warm waterdependent forage fishery. Representative aquatic life communities associated with these waters generally require cool or warm temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that do not drop below 5 mg/L.
Attainable Use
The use that the investigator believes the water could achieve through managing "controllable" sources. Beaver dams, hydroelectric dams, low gradient streams, and naturally occurring low flows are generally not considered controllable. The attainable use may be the same as the current use or it may be higher.
Cold (Class II Trout)
Streams supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L through natural reproduction and selective propagation. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.
Designated Use
This is the water classification legally recognized by NR102 and NR104, Wis. Adm. Code. The classification determines water quality criteria and effluent limits. Waters obtain designated uses through classification procedures.
Cold
Streams capable of supporting a cold water sport fishery, or serving as a spawning area for salmonids and other cold water fish species. Representative aquatic life communities, associated with these waters, generally require cold temperatures and concentrations of dissolved oxygen that remain above 6 mg/L. Since these waters are capable of supporting natural reproduction, a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 7 mg/L is required during times of active spawning and support of early life stages of newly-hatched fish.

Overview

Campground (Byron) Creek rises from several springs at the base of the Niagara escarpment in southeast Fond du Lac County (Weber et al., 1969). It is considered a Class II trout stream from Fond du Lac County Highway Y to a point near its headwaters, approximately 3.3 miles upstream (WDNR, 1980). The stream has a good gradient through this reach. The stream flattens from about mile 0.6 through a main wetland complex just downstream from its origin area (Reif, 2010). The Creek can be considered cold water to that 0.6 mile point and has potential to sustain a brook trout population. The man-made ponds in the large wetland as well as man-made diversions in the wetland degrade it to the point that it warms to near 30 Deg. C in the summer and also results in periodic anoxic conditions that cause fish kills. Much work needs to be done on this wetland problem to restore the trout migration capabilities (Reif, 2010).

The gradient flattens and the stream is dominated by a warm water forage fishery downstream of County Highway Y. The municipal wastewater treatment facility and Seneca Foods discharge to it below County Highway Y. Nonpoint sources of pollution, particularly bank erosion due to cattle grazing, are the main water quality problem in the trout waters reach. Sedimentation from farm tillage practices is also a problem in the downstream reach. Runoff due to excessive spray irrigation by a canning company near Oakfield has occasionally reached the stream and caused water quality problems. There are also some unnamed tributaries to the creek which have intensive agricultural operations on land adjacent to them. Some of these operations may be affecting water quality in Campground Creek (WDNR SCRFiles, 1996). There is one cold water spring-fed tributary (WBIC 137600) that feeds into Campground Creek below the main wetland and is potentially capable of sustaining a trout population (Reif, 2010). Trout have been documented in this tributary in the past (Hacker, 1956).

Date  

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Campground Creek, Fond du Lac River Watershed (UF03) Fish and Aquatic LifeCampground Creek, Fond du Lac River Watershed (UF03) RecreationCampground Creek, Fond du Lac River Watershed (UF03) Fish Consumption

Impaired Waters

Multiple segments of Campground Creek (also known as Bryon Creek) were assessed in 2018.

The assessment of miles 0-1.66 showed impairment by phosphorus; new total phosphorus sample data overwhelmingly exceed 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, available biological data do not indicate impairment. New macroinvertebrate and fish sample data were assessed; no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the "poor" condition category. Based on the most updated information, no change in existing impaired waters listing is needed.

The assessment of miles 1.67-7.26 showed impairment by phosphorus; new total phosphorus sample data exceeded 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use, however, available biological data did not indicate impairment. New macroinvertebrate and fish sample data were assessed; no macroinvertebrate or fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scored in the "poor" condition category. The 2018 assessments also showed continued impairment by temperature; new temperature sample data exceeded 2018 WisCALM listing criteria for the Fish and Aquatic Life use. Based on the most updated information, no change in existing impaired waters listing is needed.

Date  2017

Author  Ashley Beranek

Condition

Wisconsin has over 84,000 miles of streams, 15,000 lakes and milllions of acres of wetlands. Assessing the condition of this vast amount of water is challenging. The state's water monitoring program uses a media-based, cross-program approach to analyze water condition. An updated monitoring strategy (2015-2020) is now available.

Compliance with Clean Water Act fishable, swimmable standards are located in the Executive Summary of Water Condition in 2016 . See also 'monitoring' and 'projects'.

Reports

Recommendations

Navigability Determination
T14N R16E ; Campground Creek;
Navigability Determination
T14N R16E ; Campground Creek;
Monitor and/or Protect Groundwater, Sourcewater
Groundwater use appears to be a serious concern. High capacity wells, such as those of the City of Fond du Lac and several area Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) may be having a significant impact on the flows of springs feeding steams. This needs to be extensively studied to develop water use determinations.
Protect Headwaters and Springs
The origin spring area of Campground Creek is a major source of cold water for that area of the Creek and is important in that it has potential to meet cold trout water conditions. This needs to be protected and restored.

Recommendations

The main wetland complex in the Campground Creek sub-watershed needs to be studied and restored to a natural stream channel. Many useful cold springs enter the wetland but are warmed extensively in the summer. Much of this does not appear to be a natural condition and has been the result of man-made modifications such as mining peat in the wetland.

Groundwater use appears to be a serious concern. High capacity wells, such as those of the City of Fond du Lac and several area Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) may be having a significant impact on the flows of springs feeding steams. This needs to be extensively studied to develop water use determinations.

Groundwater protection areas need to be formally identified for the springs that feed Campground Creek.

The origin spring area of Campground Cr. is a major source of cold water for that area of the Creek and is important in that it has potential to meet cold trout water conditions. This needs to be protected and restored.

Date  2011

Author   Aquatic Biologist

Management Goals

Wisconsin's Water Quality Standards provide qualitative and quantitative goals for waters that are protective of Fishable, Swimmable conditions [Learn more]. Waters that do not meet water quality standards are considered impaired and restoration actions are planned and carried out until the water is once again fishable and swimmable

Management goals can include creation and implementation of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis, habitat restoration work, partnership education and outreach and more. If specific recommendations exist for this water, they will be displayed below.

Monitoring

Monitoring the condition of a river, stream, or lake includes gathering physical, chemical, biological, and habitat data. Comprehensive studies often gather all these parameters in great detail, while lighter assessment events will involve sampling physical, chemical and biological data such as macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish communities integrate watershed or catchment condition, providing great insight into overall ecosystem health. Chemical and habitat parameters tell researchers more about human induced problems including contaminated runoff, point source dischargers, or habitat issues that foster or limit the potential of aquatic communities to thrive in a given area. Wisconsin's Water Monitoring Strategy was recenty updated.

Grants and Management Projects

Monitoring Projects

Watershed Characteristics

Campground Creek is located in the Fond du Lac River watershed which is 244.74 miĀ². Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (67%), wetland (15%) and a mix of urban (4%) and other uses (6%). This watershed has 461.86 stream miles, 991.41 lake acres and 16,649.99 wetland acres.

Nonpoint Source Characteristics

This watershed is ranked High for runoff impacts on streams, Not Available for runoff impacts on lakes and High for runoff impacts on groundwater and therefore has an overall rank of High. This value can be used in ranking the watershed or individual waterbodies for grant funding under state and county programs.However, all waters are affected by diffuse pollutant sources regardless of initial water quality. Applications for specific runoff projects under state or county grant programs may be pursued. For more information, go to surface water program grants.

Natural Community

Byron Creek is considered a Coldwater, Cool-Cold Headwater, Cool-Warm Headwater under the state's Natural Community Determinations.

Natural communities (stream and lake natural communities) represent model results that use predicted flow and temperature based on landscape features and related assumptions. Ranges of flow and temperature associated with specific aquatic life communities (fish, macroinvertebrates) help biologists identify appropriate resource management goals. Wisconsin's Riverine Natural Communities.

Cool (Warm-Transition) Headwaters are small, sometimes intermittent streams with cool to warm summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are uncommon to absent, transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are common to uncommon. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.

Cool (Cold-Transition) Headwaters are small, usually perennial streams with cold to cool summer temperatures. Coldwater fishes are common to uncommon (<10 per 100 m), transitional fishes are abundant to common, and warm water fishes are uncommon to absent. Headwater species are abundant to common, mainstem species are common to absent, and river species are absent.

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