Hillsboro Lake TWA 2015

Title

Hillsboro Lake TWA WQM Plan 2017
Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River (LW24)
HUC: 070700040105 and 070700040104, Monitored in 2015
Jean Unmuth, Southern District Biologist

Hillsboro Lake TWA Draft WQM Plan 2017

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of implementing agricultural best management practices (BMP) in the Hillsboro Lake watershed since the installation of practices between 1995 and 2005. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) conducted a Clean Water Act Section 319 project to evaluate monitoring in the Hillsboro Lake watershed in eastern Vernon County, Wisconsin. The thirty-five square mile Hillsboro Lake watershed was designated a priority watershed under the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement Program in 1993. A Hillsboro Priority Watershed Surface Water Resource Appraisal was completed in December of 1994 as part of this project. The watershed appraisal included monitoring during 1993-1994 for fish and habitat surveys at 11 sites, temperature monitoring at two sites, and macroinvertebrate sampling at six sites. The data, used in conjunction with observations about watershed health, are also used to guide planning for improvements where needed. Results from the 1993-1994 monitoring indicated that the West Branch of Baraboo River water quality was very good to excellent with minimal organic loading, while water quality in South Branch Creek was poor in the lower stream reaches but good in the upper stream reach, with some organic loading. The DNR worked with watershed and county staff to determine the location, number and type of BMP?s to be installed in the watershed. The BMP locations helped DNR staff prioritize where follow-up monitoring would be conducted during 2015.

The 2015 study provides data to identify the contemporary status of two HUC 12s which comprises the Hillsboro Lake watershed. DNR collected fish, habitat, macroinvertebrate, and water chemistry data for streams in the watershed. The data helps determine whether these streams are achieving their attainable uses and supports listing waters not meeting designated and attainable use, and assess the overall health of the watersheds as required by Section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act. Follow-up monitoring targeted areas containing the greatest number and largest scale of BMP?s installed. Individual streams or reaches of streams were also targeted with specific goal oriented follow-up monitoring.

Priorities

Watershed Goals
The overall goal of this plan is to improve and protect water quality in the Lower Wisconsin Basin. This Targeted Watershed Assessment monitoring project provided substantial data to analyze current conditions and to make recommendations for future management actions in the area. This plan is designed to present monitoring study results, identify issues or concerns in the area found during the project and to make recommendations to improve or protect water quality consistent with Clean Water Act guidelines and state water quality standards.

Management Priorities
Work with the landowners and Vernon County staff to install agricultural BMP?s that will help protect the water quality coming from spring heads is imperative to maintaining good stream health in the watersheds. It is imperative to continue to work with landowners in the watersheds in some locations where woody vegetation has overgrown the stream banks. The goal would be to encourage control of woody vegetation, and prevent woody overgrowth along banks so that streams can continue to flow in a meandering pattern and to narrow streams for better fish habitat. Some bank shaping and sloping at a 3:1 ratio in areas with eroding banks will help stabilize stream banks and reduce soil erosion. Encouraging stabilization of banks with vegetated buffers planted in grasses and forbs will help prevent erosion, act as natural cover for fish, and reduce sediment and nutrients flowing to the streams.

Resources

Watershed Overview
The Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River Watershed, located in Juneau, Monroe, Sauk and Vernon Counties, contains all of the streams that drain to the uppermost 30 miles of the Baraboo River which eventually reaches the Wisconsin River 120 miles downstream near Portage. Hillsboro Lake TWA focuses on the southwestern part of the larger watershed (Figure 1). The land in this watershed is characteristic of the driftless area with steep hills, however many stream valleys are fairly wide. Agricultural activities are found both on the wider ridgetops and in most valleys.

Population, Land Use, Site Characteristics
Population in the Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River watershed in 2000 was estimated at 6,790. Municipalities in the watershed include Elroy, Hillsboro, Kendall and Union Center. Overall population growth in the communities is below the state average. The Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River watershed is 171.73 mi2. Land use in the watershed is primarily agricultural (62%), forest (30%), and a mix of suburban (5%) and other uses (2%). This watershed has 414.62 stream miles, 124.03 lake acres, and 4,637.96 wetland acres.

Hillsboro Lake TWA Overview
The Hillsboro Lake targeted watershed contains two major streams, West Branch of the Baraboo River (WBIC: 1288400), and South Branch Creek (WBIC: 1289800). The South Branch Creek subwatershed is approximately 11,428 acres in size, and land use in the subwatershed is dominantly agriculture (48%), followed by forest (31%), grassland/pasture (16%), residential (5%), and water (0.12%) (Figure 2). The major tributary of South Branch Creek is Beaver Creek (WBIC: 1290100). Both the West Branch and South Branch flow into Hillsboro Lake at the west end. West Branch Creek subwatershed is approximately 11,635 acres, and land use in the subwatershed is primarily agricultural (43%), followed by forest (36%), grassland/pasture (16%), residential (5%), and water (0.02%) (Figure 3). The major tributary of The West Branch is an unnamed tributary (WBIC: 1290900), also known locally as Dilly Creek.

Outstanding and Exceptional Resource Waters
Waters designated as ORW or ERW are surface waters which provide outstanding recreational opportunities, support valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat, have good water quality, and are not significantly impacted by human activities. ORW and ERW status identifies waters that the State of Wisconsin has determined warrant additional protection from the effects of pollution. Within the Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River watershed almost three miles of Spring Valley Creek (WBIC 1294000) has been classified as an ERW (Table 1). There are no ORW or ERW waters within the sub-watershed of Hillsboro Lake.

Impaired Waters
Every two years, Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to publish a list of all waters that do not meet water quality standards. Impaired waters in this watershed are due to historical discharges, mine tailings, and runoff issues. Within the Seymour Creek and Baraboo River watershed there are many waters currently impaired, and under total maximum daily load (TMDL) development. The West Branch Baraboo River and South Branch Creek in the Hillsboro watershed are impaired and under TMDL development.

Trout Waters
DNR uses three categories to classify the different types of trout streams throughout Wisconsin. High quality trout waters (Class I) that have sufficient natural reproduction to sustain populations of wild trout, at or near carry capacity. Consequently, streams in this category require no stocking of hatchery trout. These streams or stream sections are often small and may contain small or slow-growing trout, especially in the headwaters. Class II streams may have some natural reproduction, but not enough to utilize available food and space. Therefore, stocking is required to maintain a desirable sport fishery. These streams have good survival and carryover of adult trout, often producing some fish larger than average size. Class III are marginal trout habitat with no natural reproduction occurring. There are seven trout water streams in the Seymour Creek, Baraboo River Watershed. Within the Hillsboro Lake watershed, Both the South Branch Creek and West Branch of Baraboo River have segments of trout water (Table 3).

Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River (LW24)

Ecological Landcapes

The Western Coulee and Ridges Ecological Landscape in southwestern and west central Wisconsin is characterized by its highly eroded, driftless topography and relatively extensive forested landscape. Historical vegetation consisted of southern hardwood forests, oak savanna, scattered prairies, and floodplain forests and marshes along the major rivers. With Euro-American settlement, most of the land on ridgetops and valley bottoms was cleared of oak savanna, prairie, and level forest for agriculture. The steep slopes between valley bottom and ridgetop, unsuitable for raising crops, grew into oak-dominated forests after the ubiquitous presettlement wildfires were suppressed.

The primary forest cover is oak-hickory (51%) dominated by oak species and shagbark hickory. Maple-basswood forests (28%), dominated by sugar maple, basswood and red maple, are common in areas that were not subjected to repeated presettlement wildfires. Bottomland hardwoods (10%) are common in the valley bottoms of major rivers and are dominated by silver maple, ashes, elms, cottonwood, and red maple. Relict conifer forests including white pine, hemlock and yellow birch are a rarer natural community in the cooler, steep, north slope microclimates. The Seymour Creek and Upper Baraboo River Watershed has a variety of quality habitats and rare plant communities that are listed on the state's Natural Heritage Inventory, (NHI), kept by the Bureau of Endangered Resources. These communities include: dry-mesic prairie, hemlock relict, moist cliff, pine relict, southern dry-mesic forest, and southern mesic forest.

Hydrology

The Hillsboro Lake watershed has no natural lakes as Hillsboro Lake itself is an impoundment of the West and South Branches of the Baraboo River. Wetland complexes are rare in the watershed and mainly limited to the margins of streams, near stream mouths, and around the shoreline of Hillsboro Lake. Lake water quality is marginal due to heavy siltation from upland runoff to streams entering the lake. Water clarity is low and the lake is classified as eutrophic.

Methods & Procedures

The fisheries assemblage was determined by electroshocking a section of stream with a minimum station length of 35 times the mean stream width (Lyons, 1992). A stream tow barge with a generator and two probes was used at most sites. A backpack shocker with a single probe was used at sites generally less than two meters wide. All fish were collected, identified, and counted. All gamefish were measured for length. At each site qualitative notes were collected for average stream width and depth, riparian buffers and land use, evidence of sedimentation, fish cover and potential management options. A qualitative habitat survey (Simonson, et. al., 1994) was also performed at each site. Macroinvertebrate samples were obtained by kick sampling and collecting using a D-frame net at two sites each in The West Branch and South Branch Creek, and one site in Beaver Creek and the unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek), and sent to the UW-Stevens Point lab for analysis. Continuous temperature monitoring was collected at two sites each in the West Branch and South Branch Creek, and one site near the mouths of Beaver Creek and the unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek) using Pro V-2 temperature meters. Meters were programmed to collect water temperatures in 15 minute increments from the end of May through the end of August. Monthly phosphorus samples were collected from May through October by Water Action Volunteer citizen monitors trained in using DNR methods, near the mouths of West Branch and South Branch Creeks. Diatom sampling was performed by DNR central office staff in South Branch Creek, West Branch Baraboo River, and Beaver Creek.

Site Selection & Study Design

Two streams and their major tributaries in the watershed were monitored. The West Branch (WBIC: 1288400) is 9.29 miles long, and is classified as a Class II trout water from the headwaters down to Sebranek Road. Its major unnamed tributary stream (WBIC: 1290900), also locally known as Dilly Creek, is 4.05 miles long. The South Branch Creek (WBIC: 1289800) is 9.44 miles long, and is classified as a Class II trout water from the headwaters down to STH-80. Its major tributary is Beaver Creek (WBIC: 1290100) which is 4.78 miles long.

The streams are cool-cold natural communities, and standard DNR protocols and methods were used to assess qualitative habitat, fish and water quality at 10 sites in the watershed during 2015. Fish index of biotic integrity (FIBI) results were summarized over the past 10 years (2005-2015) at 16 stations and macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (MIBI) results were summarized over the past 10 years (2005-2015) at 7 stations to assess watershed health.

Natural Communities

Most of the streams in the two HUC 12?s are modelled to be cool-cold transitional headwaters or mainstems, with the exception of very short segments in both the West Branch of the Baraboo and South Branch Creeks very near where they flow into Hillsboro Lake, where the natural community is modelled as cold water (Lyons, 2008). The department has recently developed a draft method to determine whether or not the modeled natural community is accurate based on the fishery assemblage and climate conditions (Lyons, 2013). In the case of the West Branch of Baraboo River and the unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek), the thermal composition of species (cold, warm, or transitional) and percentage of intolerant fish verifies the modelled cool-cold natural communities. Both brook and brown trout were found in the West Branch of the Baraboo, while in the unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek) only a few brown trout were found in the survey. Continuous summer stream temperature monitoring at two sites in the West Branch of the Baraboo River, and in the unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek) indicate both streams have temperatures in the cool-cold range, and cool-cold transitional fish were dominant.

In South Branch Creek and Beaver Creek the thermal composition of species indicated the stream resembles a cool-warm system, rather than a cool-cold system. There is a fair amount of diversity of non-game cool-warm transitional fish species, and only a single cold water fish, a brook trout was found in South Branch surveys, while only two cold water brook trout were found in Beaver Creek surveys. Environmental degradation can sometimes explain the discrepancy between the modelled and actual community where there is a lack of intolerant species and a dominance of tolerant ones. For South Branch Creek and Beaver Creek, the percentage of tolerant fish fell within the expected ranges for cool-cold transitional systems, and therefore a degraded community is not the principle reason for the discrepancy in actual versus modelled natural community.

The discrepancy between the temperature data and the fish community can also happen if the year of the thermal measurement wasn?t representative of the long-term average. In this case air temperatures were not considered abnormal during summer when we had the thermistors deployed. Continuous stream temperature monitoring at two sites in South Branch Creek indicated that for about 10 days the summer temperatures were above 25 degrees Celsius, exceeding the cool temperature range for cool-cold fish assemblages, and supports that the stream natural community should be changed from the modelled cool-cold to cool-warm. Similarly, stream temperatures monitored upstream of the mouth of Beaver creek indicated temperatures exceeded the cool-cold range, and were in the cool-warm range for at least 8 days, and supports that the natural community should be changed from the modelled cool-cold to cool-warm. In addition, the cool- warm dominant fish assemblages encountered in 2015 for South Branch Creek and Beaver Creek were similar to assemblages found in historical surveys as far back as 2004, further supporting the change in natural community to cool-warm.

Discussion of Results

Fish Species Found
The West Branch and unnamed tributary had a far greater abundance of cold water fish and a smaller percentage of tolerant fish species as compared to the South Branch and its tributary, Beaver Creek (Table 7). Additionally, there were many more intolerant species in the West Branch and unnamed tributary compared to the South Branch and Beaver Creek. Only two fish species were collected from the West Branch near the headwaters; brook trout and slimy sculpin. Slimy sculpin dominated the cold water fish caught in the West Branch and unnamed tributary, while in the South Branch Creek and Beaver Creek, sculpin were virtually absent. In Beaver Creek only two brook trout were caught, while in the South Branch only one brook trout was caught, and the fish communities of those streams were dominated by more cool-warm fish species. There were up to 15 different species in the South Branch as compared to up to 10 different species found in the West Branch, which is expected as the South Branch fish community mimics a cool-warm fish community, which normally has greater fish diversity than a cold water system.

Transitional fish species (brook stickleback, creek chub, western blacknose dace, and white sucker) tolerant to low dissolved oxygen, and/or disturbed habitat were found in much higher numbers in South Branch Creek as compared to the West Branch. The two fish most commonly found throughout all of the streams were creek chub and fantail darter. Fantail darters are usually in abundance when there is hard bottom substrate such as bedrock, rubble, cobble and gravel (Becker 1983), which gives evidence that good substrate is common in these streams. Conversely, fantail darters are less sensitive to moderate turbidity and siltation than for example, rainbow darters (Scott and Crossman 1973), which we did not see in any streams, and that may indicate that even though substrate is adequate, turbidity. and siltation is a common occurrence.

The fishery is only one environmental indicator and for this reason, the quality of the resources should be looked at in the context of overall conditions including habitat and macroinvertebrates.

Macroinvertebrate Data
Macroinvertebrate results were variable in the two subwatersheds and ratings ranged from poor to good during the 2015 monitoring season. Localized stressors likely explain a significant portion of variance among sites. Weigel (2003) found that while watershed and local variables explain a significant portion of variance in macroinvertebrate IBI (MIBI) among sites within the driftless region, localized stressors were of greater importance to explain the MIBI than in other parts of the state. A single excellent rating was collected during 2009 in the West Branch of the Baraboo River, while during 2015 both MIBI?s from the upper and lower stream segments rated only fair where we collected samples from rock riffles that were not heavily embedded in silt, and where the vegetative buffer was good. The unnamed tributary (Dilly Creek) rated poor, even though there was adequate rock-riffle habitat to sample, that habitat was moderately embedded in silt, filamentous algae was present, bank erosion was high, and both the stream bottom and the riparian area was trampled by livestock. South Branch MIBI ratings were good in the upper stream segment where rock riffles were sampled, and the riparian habitat had a good vegetated buffer, but the downstream MIBI collected near CTH-Q rated only fair where rock riffle habitat was heavily embedded with silt, filamentous algae was excessive, erosion was high, and the banks were heavily trampled by livestock. Beaver Creek MIBI rated good where rock riffles were clear of silt, algae was rare, and there was a good vegetated buffer.

Phosphorus Concentrations
Growing season phosphorus concentrations were fairly similar at the mouths of both the West Branch of the Baraboo and South Branch Creek (Table 5). Data shows both streams exceed the phosphorus concentration of 0.75 mg/l. The department?s listing methodology for impaired waters (WDNR, 2013) recommends listing sites where the median phosphorus concentration exceeds 0.075 mg/l on wadable streams and 0.1 mg/l on rivers. The impairment listing protocol uses a 95% confidence interval around the median for listing streams and rivers.

Monitoring Recommendations

Monitoring and Assessment Recommendations
1. The West Branch of Baraboo River at Sebranek Road had a median value for phosphorus of 0.077 mg/l, but did not exceed the lower confidence limit for the 12 samples, thus is not considered as impaired for phosphorus. This water should not be listed as impaired.
2. The West Branch should be removed from the impaired waters list for Low DO, phosphorus, sediment, total suspended solids and BOD. Biological information rated from fair to excellent and does not support listing the stream for biological impairment.
3. The West Branch of Baraboo River phosphorus monitoring site located at STH-33, should not be used as a stream site for calculation of phosphorus values, due to the site being located within Hillsboro Lake. Instead use the phosphorus values from the Sebranek Road site.
4. The West Branch of Baraboo River fish natural community designations of cool-cold were verified, and the fish and aquatic life should be changed to good or supporting.
5. DNR should monitor monthly phosphorus at the mouth of the unnamed tributary (WBIC: 1290900 Dilly Creek) to determine if it is impaired for phosphorus.
6. DNR should conduct follow up monitoring in the unnamed tributary (WBIC: 1290900 Dilly Creek) at another location upstream in segment one for a second biological indicator for impairment decisions.
7. DNR should monitor Hillsboro Lake to determine lake health and condition.

Natural Community Changes
1. The (unnamed tributary (WBIC: 1290900 Dilly Creek) fish natural community designations of cool-cold were verified, thus no changes are recommended.
2. DNR should monitor South Branch Creek downstream of CTH Q to determine if the natural community designation of cold water is correct. Currently, the stream is designated as coldwater in the lower stretch near the stream mouth and at the stream outlets to Hillsboro Lake, which is shallow, warmwater lake; this water backs up into South Branch Creek downstream of CTH Q, during even small rain events.
3. South Branch Creek was previously listed on the 303(d) list in 2014 as impaired for phosphorus from STH-80 Bridge to the mouth. However, biological information rated good to excellent and does not support a 303(d) listing for biological impairment.
4. DNR should change the natural community designation of South Branch Creek from cool-cold to cool-warm.
DNR should change the natural community designation of Beaver Creek from cool-cold to cool-warm.

Management Recommendations

1. DNR should investigate management actions that may help increase baseflow and dissolved oxygen to the West Branch of the Baraboo River, downstream of the lake.
2. DNR should work on outreach efforts with landowners in the watershed, and research opportunities for harvestable buffers to provide economic incentives for maintaining buffers along streams.
3. The West Branch of Baraboo River fish lunker structures in the segment upstream of STH-33 have either collapsed or silted in, and should be restored to provide better cover for fish.
4. DNR should work with the Hillsboro School District to encourage environmental programs and citizen monitoring of streams and Hillsboro Lake through the Citizen Lake Management Network and the Water Action Volunteer Programs.

Partner Recommendations

1. South Branch Creek has some stream segments and springheads that are highly eroded from livestock grazing, therefore, DNR and partners should implement agricultural BMPs to reduce soil erosion.
2. The Unnamed Tributary (WBIC: 1290500) of South Branch Creek flowing from a spring pond, appears to be contributing a high amount of nutrients to South Branch Creek, and DNR along with partners should implement BMPs to reduce soil erosion and nutrient inputs.
3. The West Branch of Baraboo River has some stream segments that while not excessively grazed, have steep or vertical banks, and DNR and Partners should implement stream bank erosion controls on bends to reduce erosion and stream siltation

Water Quality Monitoring and Planning

This Water Quality Management Plan was created under the state�s Water Quality Management Planning and Water Resources Monitoring Programs. The plan reflects Water Quality Bureau and Water Resources Monitoring Strategy 2015-2020 goals and priorities and fulfills Areawide Water Quality Management Planning milestones under the Clean Water Act, Section 208. Condition information and resource management recommendations support and guide program priorities for the plan area. This plan is hereby approved by the Wisconsin DNR Water Quality Program and is a formal update to the Lower Wisconsin Areawide Water Quality Management Plan and Wisconsin�s Statewide Areawide Water
Quality Management Plan. This plan will be forwarded to USEPA for certification as a formal plan update.

Contributors

-Jean Unmuth, Primary Author and Investigator, Southern District, Wisconsin DNR
-Victoria Ziegler, Program Support, Water Quality Bureau, Wisconsin DNR
-Lisa Helmuth, Program Coordinator, Water Quality Bureau, Wisconsin DNR

Partners

-Trout Unlimited Southern Wisconsin Chapter
-Trout Unlimited Coulee Chapter
-Driftless Area Land Conservancy
-Vernon County Land Conservation Department
-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)

Bibliography

Becker, George C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin Press. 1051 pp.

Lyons, John. 1992. Using the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) to Measure Environmental Quality in Warmwater Streams of Wisconsin. United States Department of Agriculture. General Technical Report NC-149.

Lyons, John. 2006. A Fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity to Assess Intermittent Headwater Streams in Wisconsin, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 122: 239-258.

Lyons, John. 2008. Using the Wisconsin Stream Model to Estimate the Potential Natural Community of Wisconsin Streams (DRAFT). Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Fish and Aquatic Life Research Section. November, 2008.

Lyons, John. T. Zorn, J. Stewart, P Seelbach, K Wehrly, and L. Wang. 2009. Defining and Characterizing Coolwater Streams and Their Fish Assemblages in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 29:1130-1151.

Lyons, John. 2012. Development and Validation of Two Fish-based Indices of Biotic Integrity for Assessing Perennial Coolwater Streams in Wisconsin, USA. Ecological Indicators 23 (2012) 402-412.

Lyons, John. 2013. Methodology for Using Field Data to Identify and Correct Wisconsin Stream �Natural Community� Misclassifications. Version 4. May 16, 2013.

Scott, W.B. and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fish. Res. Board Canada. Ottawa. Bull.184. 966 pp.
Simonson, Timothy D., J. Lyons, and P.D. Kanehl. 1994. Guidelines for Evaluating Fish Habitat in Wisconsin Streams. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. General Technical Report NC-164.

Weigel, Brian. 2003. Development of Stream Macroinvertebrate Models That Predict Watershed and Local Stressors in Wisconsin. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 22(1): 123- 142. WDNR. 2013. Wisconsin 2014 Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology (WisCALM). Clean Water Act Section 305(b), 314, and 303(d) Integrated Reporting. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Bureau of Water Quality Program Guidance. September, 2013.

Abbreviations

BMP: Best Management Practice. A practice that is determined effective and practicable (including technological, economic, and institutional considerations) in preventing or reducing pollution generated from nonpoint sources to a level compatible with water quality goals.

DNR: Department of Natural Resources. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is an agency of the State of Wisconsin created to preserve, protect, manage, and maintain natural resources.

FIBI: Fish Index of biological integrity (Fish IBI). An Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) is a scientific tool used to identify and classify water pollution problems. An IBI associates anthropogenic influences on a water body with biological activity in the water and is formulated using data developed from biosurveys. In Wisconsin, Fish IBIs are created for each type of natural community in the state?s stream system.

HUC: Hydrologic Unit Code. A code or sequence of numbers that identify one of a number of nested and interlocked hydrologic catchments delineated by a consortium of agencies including USGS, USFS, and Wisconsin DNR.

MIBI: Macroinvertebrate Index of biological integrity. In Wisconsin, the MIBI, or macroinvertebrate Index of biological integrity, was developed specifically to assess Wisconsin?s macroinvertebrate community (see also Fish IBI). Natural Community. A system of categorizing waterbodies based on their inherent physical, hydrologic, and biological assemblages. Both Streams and Lakes are categorized using an array of ?natural community? types.

Monitoring Seq. No. Monitoring Sequence Number, refers to a unique identification code generated by the Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), which holds much of the state?s water quality monitoring data.

SWIMS ID. Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) Identification Code is the unique monitoring station identification number for the location where monitoring data was gathered.

TWA: Targeted Watershed Assessment. A statewide study design a rotating watershed approach to gathering of baseline monitoring data with specialized targeted assessments for unique and site specific concerns, such as effectiveness monitoring of management actions.

WATERS ID: The Waterbody Assessment, Tracking and Electronic Reporting System Identification Code (WATERS ID) is a unique numerical sequence number assigned by the WATERS system, also known as Assessment Unit ID code.

WBIC: Water Body Identification Code. WDNR?s unique identification codes assigned to water features in the state. The lines and information allow the user to execute spatial and tabular queries about the data, make maps, and perform flow analysis and network traces.