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Natural Community Descriptions

(January 14, 2002 Revision) Prepared by Eric Epstein, Emmet Judziewicz and Elizabeth Spencer

Specific palustrine community types found in either the coastal zone or the Lake Superior Basin interior are described below.


Alder Thicket. This tall shrub wetland community is dominated by speckled alder (Alnus incana). Common sites include stream and lake margins, the interface between open and forested wetland communities, the interface between open wetlands and upland communities, and depressions where there is movement of groundwater through the soil. Common associates include marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), black currant (Ribes americanum), crested shield fern (Dryopteris cristata), spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens biflora), rough bedstraw (Galium asprellum), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), horsetails (Equisetum spp.), and arrow-leaved tearthumb (Polygonum sagittatum). Rare species occurring in alder thickets include auricled twayblade (Listera auriculata), sweet coltsfoot (Petasites sagittatus), small shinleaf (Pyrola minor), and the wood turtle (Clemmys insculpta).


Alvar. This rare community consists of areas of thin discontinuous soil overlying horizontal beds of limestone or dolomite in the vicinity of Great Lakes shorelines. They are characterized by relatively low tree cover and a distinctive biota, which includes elements of rock pavement, prairie, savanna and boreal forest communities. Among these are regional endemics, some very rare. This community type is much more common and better-developed in Michigan and Ontario than in Wisconsin. Small coniferous and deciduous trees (cedar, fir, pine, oak, aspen, birch) are scattered among an assemblage of species that can include big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), Indian-grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum), as well as shoreline plants such as silverweed (Potentilla anserina) and dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris).


Bedrock Shore. Wave-splashed bedrock shoreline ledges are best developed on sandstone in the Apostle Islands of Lake Superior. Stunted trees of white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), white birch (Betula papyrifera), showy mountain-ash (Sorbus decora) and green alder (Alnus crispa) are often present in crevices. Common herbs are ticklegrass (Agrostis hyemalis), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), and Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), but the flora often includes unusual plants such as bird’s-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica), brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), and three-toothed cinquefoil (Potentilla tridentata).


Black Spruce Swamp. This forest wetland community occurs primarily in acid peatlands of insular basins. Black Spruce (Picea mariana) is the dominant tree. Canopy associates include tamarack (Larix laricina) and occasionally balsam fir (Abies balsamea). A level mat of Sphagnum mosses covers the surface and provides a substrate upon which a characteristic set of understory plants grows. Among these are Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), three-leaved false Solomon’s seal (Smilacina trifolia), creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula), three-seeded sedge (Carex trisperma), and moccasin flower (Cypripedium acaule). Windthrow gaps are often common in mature stands, and these contain thickets of spruce or tamarack saplings. As the sphagnum peat accumulates, the canopy may break up and a very acid muskeg will result.

Black spruce swamp and tamarack swamp have previously been treated as “northern wet forest”, as described by Curtis (1959). We have recognized two types based on compositional differences and the diverging successional pathways demonstrated by these communities. Rare species include many boreal birds and lepidoptera.

Boreal Rich Fen. Neutral to alkaline cold open peatlands of northern Wisconsin through which carbonate-rich groundwater percolates. Sphagnum mosses are absent or of relatively minor importance, as calciphilic species (especially the “brown” mosses) predominate. Dominant/characteristic plants include woolly sedge (Carex lasiocarpa), twig rush (Cladium mariscoides), beaked bladderwort (Utricularia cornuta), rushes (Juncus spp.), and Hudson Bay cotton-grass (Scirpus hudsonianus). Shrubby phases also occur, with bog birch (Betula pumila), sage willow (Salix candida), and speckled alder (Alnus incana) present in significant amounts.


Calcareous Fen. An open wetland found in southern Wisconsin, often underlain by a calcareous substrate, through which carbonate-rich groundwater percolates. The flora is typically diverse, with many calciphiles. Common species are several sedges (Carex sterilis and C. lanuginosa), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), shrubby St. John's-wort (Hypericum kalmianum), Ohio goldenrod (Solidago ohioensis), grass-of-parnassus (Parnassia glauca), twig-rush (Cladium mariscoides), brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum), and asters (Aster spp.). Some fens have significant prairie or sedge meadow components, and intergrade with those communities.


Clay Seepage Bluff (formerly called Alkaline Clay Bluff). Steep, clay bluffs occur along some stretches of the Great Lakes shorelines and less commonly inland on streams draining into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. Vegetative cover ranges from forested with pines (Pinus resinosa and P. strobus), white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and white birch (Betula papyrifera), to bare clay with only a few herbs present. Buffaloberry (Sheperdia canadensis) is a characteristic shrub, but more typically, alders (Alnus incana and A. crispa), as well as herbs such as Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) and pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea) are dominant. Both native and exotic pioneers such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) are common, especially on unstable sites. But it is the semi-stabilized “weeping” bluffs that are of the greatest biological interest. Golden sedge (Carex aurea), orchids and calciphilic fen species may colonize such sites, which can be local repositories of rare or otherwise noteworthy species.


Coastal Bog (Poor Fen). The coastal bog is also considered an herbaceous wetland community. The surface layer of this weakly minerotrophic open peatland community, which occurs as a part of the coastal sandspit-lagoon complexes, is comprised of Sphagnum mosses. The mats are typically quite firm and may be "grounded" along the margins of the uplands adjoining the wetland complexes. At larger sites, the coastal bogs grade into a sedge fen community toward the open lagoon waters and to tamarack swamp toward the uplands. Characteristic plants associated with the sphagnum mats are a number of ericaceous shrubs and sedges, particularly leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), woolly sedge (Carex lasiocarpa), few-seeded sedge (C. oligosperma), mud sedge (C. limosa), a sedge (C. chordorrhiza), white beak-rush (Rhynchospora alba), and tawny cotton-grass (Eriophorum virginicum). Shrub components of this type often include bog birch (Betula pumila), speckled alder (Alnus incana), and bog willow (Salix pedicellaris).

Other typical species include pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), buck bean (Menyanthes trifoliata), scheuchzeria (Scheuchzeria palustris), sweet gale (Myrica gale), rose pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides), grass pink (Calopogon tuberosus), and club-spur orchid (Platanthera clavellata). Floristically, the coastal bogs closely resemble the "poor fens" and "sphagnum lawns" of the upper Great Lakes region, and they should perhaps be treated as a subtype of that community.

Among the rare plants found in the coastal bogs are dragon's mouth orchid (Arethusa bulbosa), Michaux's sedge (Carex michauxiana), sooty beak-rush (Rhynchospora fusca), Carex tenuiflora, and yellow star grass (Xyris montana). Rare animals include birds, such as northern harrier and American bittern, and a number of boreal lepidoptera.

Coastal Fen (Sedge Fen). This herbaceous (sedge-dominated) wetland community occurs in coastal areas on the margins of shallow lagoons, which are protected from wind, wave, and ice action on Lake Superior by sandspits. Woolly sedge (Carex lasiocarpa) is usually the primary mat component. Typical associates are twig rush (Cladium mariscoides), buck bean (Menyanthes trifoliata), sweet gale (Myrica gale), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), bladderworts (Utricularia cornuta, U. intermedia, U. minor), cotton-grass (Scirpus hudsonianus), intermediate sundew (Drosera intermedia), water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), marsh muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata), and white beak-rush (Rhynchospora alba).

Floristically, these communities appear intermediate to rich and poor fens as described in both Michigan (Crum 1988) and Minnesota (Wright et al. 1992). The rich fen indicators of the Minnesota peatlands and eastern Wisconsin such as grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia glauca), false asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa), linear-leaved sundew (Drosera linearis), beaked spike rush (Eleocharis rostellata), and the sedge Carex sterilis, are absent from these coastal fens.

Rare and uncommon plants of coastal fens include coast sedge (Carex exilis), livid sedge (C. livida), Michaux's sedge (C. michauxiana), bog arrow grass (Triglochin maritimum), English sundew (Drosera anglica), tall white bog orchid (Platanthera dilatata), and sooty beak-rush (Rhynchospora fusca). Several rare birds also occur in the sedge mats, including yellow rail and LeConte's sparrow.

Emergent Aquatic. The aquatic plant community is best developed in shallow, protected, usually permanent waters. Most of the dominant plants are tall and erect with narrow leaves. Frequently a single species will form a zone within an emergent marsh, often correlated with water depth. Cattails (Typha spp.), bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), bur-reeds (Sparganium spp.), arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.), spike rushes (Eleocharis spp.) and water plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica) are important members of this community. Unrooted floating-leaved species such as the duckweeds (Lemna minor, L. trisulca, Spirodela polyrhiza), and several submergent aquatic macrophytes may occur among the stems of the emergents. Emergent marshes are important to many nesting and migratory waterbirds, mammals, invertebrates, and fish.


Floodplain Forest. Confined to the floodplains of large streams, this forest wetland community is rare in the Lake Superior Basin. Canopy trees include silver maple (Acer saccharinum), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), American elm (Ulmus americana), box elder (A. negundo), and occasionally bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa). The primary disturbance dynamic affecting this community is flooding, which occurs in the spring after the ice goes out and the snow melts, and after heavy rains. The understories are often quite open, supporting ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), green-headed coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata), swollen sedge (Carex intumescens), Gray's sedge (C. grayii), and Tuckerman's sedge (C. tuckermanii).


Great Lakes Alkaline Rockshore. These are creviced, wave-splashed, nearly horizontal dolomite ledges along Lake Michigan on the Door Peninsula. Depending on lake levels, large expanses of this habitat may be either inundated or exposed during a given year. Common members of this community are the shrubs ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), and the herbs silverweed (Potentilla anserina), goldenrods (especially Solidago hispida), brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), gentians (Gentiana spp.), grasses-of Parnassus (Parnassia spp.), Indian paint-brush (Castilleja coccinea), low calamint (Calamintha arkansana) and many other calciphiles. Plants endemic to the Great Lakes shores are significant components of some stands.


Hardwood Swamp. The hardwood swamp can also be considered a forest wetland community. These deciduous lowland forests situated on wet to wet-mesic mineral or muck substrates outside of active floodplains are often dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra). Canopy associates may include red maple (Acer rubrum), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), American elm (Ulmus americana), white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). However, black ash not infrequently occurs in almost pure stands, and is often well represented as a sapling or small tree. A dense tall shrub layer of speckled alder (Alnus incana) and winterberry (Ilex verticillata) is commonly present. Seasonal pools are features of many stands.

Among the characteristic groundlayer plants are marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), swamp saxifrage (Saxifraga pensylvanica), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), water horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), mint (Mentha arvensis), fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), and many sedges.


Interdunal Wetland. This herbaceous wetland community is extremely rare, occurring only within dune systems of the Great Lakes. As there are fewer than five occurrences known in the western Lake Superior Basin, and they are quite a distance from one another, it is difficult to characterize them floristically. Graminoids are prominent at all sites, including shore rush (Juncus balticus) and the sedge Carex viridula. Other species found at some, but not all sites, are woolly sedge (Carex lasiocarpa), twig rush (Cladium mariscoides), and nodding ladies' tresses (Spiranthes cernua).

At some sites, this community may be ephemeral. At least one site has been known for many decades, and is being encroached on by woody species and invaded by exotics. A great number of rare species were documented in the interdunal wetlands, including marsh grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), small purple bladderwort (Utricularia resupinata), Robbins spike rush (Eleocharis robbinsii), sooty beak-rush (Rhynchospora fusca), shore sedge (Carex lenticularis), and variegated horsetail (Equisetum variegatum). An old borrow pit on one of the coastal barrier spits has been colonized by several of these rare plants and also held the first Wisconsin record for juniper clubmoss (Lycopodium sabinaefolium).


Moist Cliff (Shaded Cliff of the Curtis community classification). This "micro-community" occurs on shaded (by trees or the cliff itself because of aspect), moist to seeping mossy, vertical exposures of various rock types, most commonly sandstone and dolomite. Common species are columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), the fragile ferns (Cystopteris bulbifera and C. fragilis), wood ferns (Dryopteris spp.), rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes alba), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis). The rare flora of these cliffs vary markedly in different parts of the state; Driftless Area cliffs might have northern monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense), those on Lake Superior, butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), or those in Door County, green spleenwort (Asplenium viride).


Northern Sedge Meadow. Two distinct types of sedge meadow, another herbaceous wetland community, are currently recognized within the Lake Superior Basin. The first is found along the margins of low gradient streams and drainage lakes. Dominants are often tussock sedge (Carex stricta) and bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis). Associates include swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), spotted joe-pye-weed (Eupatorium maculatum), blue flag (Iris versicolor), yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia terrestris), marsh St. Johnswort (Triadenum fraseri), marsh bellwort (Campanula aparinoides), water horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), panicled aster (Aster simplex), purple meadow rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum) and the sedges Carex comosa, C. diandra, and C. canescens. This type is found throughout most of the project area, though the stands are often small.

The other type tends to occur more in insular depressions, especially in the vicinity of northwestern Douglas County. The usual dominants are broad-leaved sedges, usually lake sedge (Carex lacustris), sometimes with beaked sedge (Carex rostrata). Associates include bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), fringed brome (Bromus ciliatus), flat-topped aster (Aster umbellatus), rough bedstraw (Galium asprellum), spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens biflora), spotted joe-pye-weed (Eupatorium maculatum), water horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), blue flag (Iris versicolor), late goldenrod (Solidago gigantea), and other sedges. Several rare plants were found in this community, including sweet coltsfoot (Petasites sagittatus), Vasey's rush (Juncus vaseyi), and New England violet (Viola novae-angliae). Encroachment by woody shrubs appears to be occurring at many locations, especially for the broad-leaved type.

Open Bog. This peatland type herbaceous wetland community is dominated by deep layers of Sphagnum mosses which isolate the other members of the community from the influence of nutrient-rich groundwater or runoff. There is often a pronounced hummock-hollow microtopography. Ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and stunted, scattered black spruce (Picea mariana) are the most characteristic vascular plants. Among the ericads the most important species are typically leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), and small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos). Sedges with a tolerance for these ombrotrophic peatlands include the carices Carex oligosperma, C. pauciflora, and C. paupercula, and the cotton-grasses Eriophorum angustifolium, E. spissum, and E. virginicum. Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) is among the few other vascular plants frequently found in the open bogs. In the "muskeg" phase, the community structurally resembles a savanna owing to the scattered, often stunted, black spruce and tamarack.

Bogs occur mostly in poorly drained depressions in glacial till and in isolated kettles within end moraines or outwash. Scale and landscape context of this community often differs markedly within different landforms. Within the project area, the largest bogs occur in the Mille Lacs Uplands and Winegar Moraines subsections. Rare species found in the bogs include a number of birds and butterflies of boreal affinity.

Shrub-carr. Willows (Salix spp.) are the dominant plants in this tall shrub wetland community. Important species include slender willow (Salix gracilis), pussy willow (S. discolor), balsam willow (S. pyrifolia), and autumn willow (S. serissima). Other common shrubs, which may be co-dominant in some stands, are meadowsweet (Spiraea alba), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), nannyberry (Viburnum lentago), and speckled alder (Alnus incana). Representative herbs are bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens biflora), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), water horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), and purple meadow rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum).


Southern Sedge Meadow. Widespread in southern Wisconsin, this open wetland community is most typically dominated by tussock sedge (Carex stricta) and Canada bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis). Common associates are water-horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), panicled aster (Aster simplex), blue flag (Iris virginica), Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), spotted joe-pye-weed (Eupatorium maculatum), broad-leaved cat-tail (Typha latifolia), and swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata). Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) may be dominant in grazed and/or ditched stands. Ditched stands can succeed quickly to Shrub-Carr.


Submergent Aquatic. This aquatic plant community occurs in bodies of permanent water, usually where there is some protection from excessive wave action and strong currents. Characteristic species include waterweed (Elodea canadensis), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), water milfoils (Myriophyllum exalbescens, and M. verticillatum), wild celery (Vallisneria americana), water marigold (Megalodonta beckii), naiad (Najas flexilis), mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris), common bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza), and many pondweeds, especially Potamogeton amplifolius, P. epihydrus, P. natans, P. richardsonii, and P. zosteriformis. Rooted, floating-leaved, aquatic macrophytes often occur with this group in shallower waters. Most common among these are water shield (Brasenia schreberi), yellow water lily (Nuphar variegatum), and white water lily (Nymphaea tuberosa). Some members of the bur-reed genus Sparganium also form beds of floating leaves. Some biologists separate the floating from the submerged beds, but there is often considerable spatial overlap between them so they have been treated together here.

Rare and uncommon species of submergent aquatic communities are lake cress (Armoracia lacustris), a water milfoil (Myriophyllum alterniflorum), and small yellow water lily (Nuphar microphyllum).

Tamarack Swamp. This forest wetland community, a weakly minerotrophic conifer swamp, is dominated by tamarack (Larix laricina). The shrub/sapling layer is often well-developed, composed of black ash (Fraxinus nigra), speckled alder (Alnus incana), and other tall shrubs. The groundlayer is often mossy, though genera other than Sphagnum may be most important. Characteristic low shrubs and herbs include smooth white violet (Viola pallens), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), goldthread (Coptis trifolia), three-leaved false Solomon's seal (Smilacina trifolia), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), royal fern (O. regalis), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), small bishop's cap (Mitella nuda), and many sedges such as Carex crinita, C. disperma, C. leptalea, and C. stipata.

This is a one-generation forest type, as the tamarack (Larix laricina) cannot reproduce under its own shade. It is also the most common forested wetland in the coastal zone. Rare species found in tamarack swamps include the sedges Carex tenuiflora and C. vaginata, fly honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata), showy lady's slipper (Cypripedium reginae), and yellow-bellied flycatcher.


Wet-Mesic Prairie. This herbaceous grassland community is dominated by tall grasses including big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Canada bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), and Canada wild-rye (Elymus canadensis). The forb component is diverse and includes azure aster (Aster oolentangiensis), shooting-star (Dodecatheon meadia), sawtooth sunflower (Helianthus grosseseratus), prairie blazing-star (Liatris pycnostachya), prairie phlox (Phlox pilosa), prairie coneflower (Ratibida pinnata), prairie docks (Silphium integrifolium and S. terebinthinaceum), late and stiff goldenrods (Solidago gigantea and S. rigida), and culver's-root (Veronicastrum virginicum).


Wet Prairie. This is a rather heterogeneous tall grassland community that shares characteristics of prairies, Southern Sedge Meadow, Calcareous Fen and even Emergent Aquatic communities. The Wet Prairie’s more wetland- like character can mean that sometimes very few true prairie species are present. Many of the stands assigned to this type by Curtis are currently classified as Wet-Mesic Prairies. The dominant graminoids are Canada bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), and prairie muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata), plus several sedge (Carex) species including lake sedge (C. lacustris), water sedge (C. aquatilis), and woolly sedge (C. lanuginosa). Many of the herb species are shared with Wet-Mesic Prairies, but the following species are often prevalent: New England aster (Aster novae-angliae), swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale), yellow stargrass (Hypoxis hirsuta), cowbane (Oxypolis rigidior), tall meadow-rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum), golden alexander (Zizea aurea), and mountain-mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum).


Wet Sand Flats. Found only on the Chequamegon Bay side of the former gap between Long Island and Chequamegon Point, this herbaceous wetland community has developed within the past two decades. The wetter, more open areas are dominated by short sedges (Carex spp., Scirpus spp.) and rushes (Juncus spp.). Slightly drier sands support thickets of willows (Salix exigua, Salix spp.) and speckled alder (Alnus incana), and many sapling green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), and box elder (Acer negundo).

Because of its short tenure and rapidly changing structure and composition, it's difficult to make any recommendations except to continue efforts to control the serious infestation of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) now established. The stand should also be visited periodically by skilled biologists as unusual numbers of interesting waifs have appeared here.


White Cedar Swamp (Northern Wet-mesic Forest). This forest wetland community (wet-mesic conifer forest) is dominated by white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), often in association with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), tamarack (Larix laricina), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra). White cedar mixed with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) is not treated as "white cedar swamp". Canopy gaps are frequently occupied by fir or ash saplings. Young cedar seldom reach the sapling stage. The tall shrub layer is typically well-developed, composed primarily of mountain maple (Acer spicatum), speckled alder (Alnus incana), and elder buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia). Common herbs/low shrubs include bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens), small bishop's cap (Mitella nuda), many sedges, and a lush cover of bryophytes. Orchids may be especially well-represented in this forest community.

Springs and spring runs are present in many cedar forests, often containing spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens biflora), golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium americanum), and swamp saxifrage (Saxifraga pensylvanica), as well as aquatic mosses. The presence of mineral-rich groundwater is a given in this community.

Concern for the cedar swamps is warranted as reproduction of cedar is severely suppressed in the presence of high deer densities. Silvicultural experiments have not succeeded in addressing this issue. Among the many rare inhabitants of this type are fairy slipper (Calypso bulbosa), Lapland buttercup (Ranunculus lapponicus), northern black currant (Ribes hudsonianum), and sheathed sedge (Carex vaginata).

Last revised: Wed, 20 Jun 2012 17:20:51 CDT