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- For information on Wisconsin's Ecological Landscapes, contact:
- Andy Stoltman
Northwest Lowlands Ecological Landscape
Landscape at a Glance
|Physical & Biotic Environment|
675 square miles (431,842 acres), representing 1.2% of the land area of the State. This is Wisconsin's smallest Ecological Landscape but it adjoins, and outside of Wisconsin is considered part of, a much larger ecoregion that extends to the west into Minnesota.
Typical of northern Wisconsin; the mean growing season is 122 days, mean annual temperature is 41.8 deg. F, mean annual precipitation is 30.6, and mean annual snowfall is 49 inches. The cool temperatures and short growing season are not adequate to support agricultural row crops; less than three percent of the land here is used for agricultural purposes and most of this is in the southern "hook" in Burnett County. The climate is favorable for forests, which cover almost 70% of the Ecological Landscape. The cool temperatures and short growing season, along with numerous and large acid peatlands, result in almost boreal-like conditions in parts of the Northwest Lowlands.
Bedrock outcroppings are rare except in association with the basalt ridge that follows the Douglas County fault line and forms part of the northern boundary of the Northwest Lowlands. Waterfalls, cliffs, bedrock glades, and rock-walled gorges are associated with this bedrock feature. Local, relatively small, exposures of sandstones and conglomerates occur in some of these gorges.
Geology & Landforms
The major landforms are ground and end moraines, with drumlins present in the southwestern portion. Topography is gently undulating. In the northern part of the Ecological Landscape many stream valleys run northeast-southwest in roughly parallel courses. This is caused by bedrock ridges that were created by harder strata of lava alternating with weaker sedimentary rocks; these were later tilted upward due to rifting and continental collision. This bedrock feature influences the surface topography of the Northwest Lowlands, especially where glacial deposits are thin.
Soils are predominantly loams, with significant acreages of peat deposits in the poorly drained lowlands. Major river valleys have soils formed in sandy to loamy-skeletal alluvium or in non-acid muck. Alluvial soils range from well drained to very poorly drained, and have areas subject to periodic flooding.
This Ecological Landscape occupies a major drainage divide, and contains the headwaters of many streams that flow north toward Lake Superior or south toward the St. Croix River system. Important rivers include the St. Croix, Black, Tamarack, Spruce, and Amnicon. Lakes are uncommon except in the heavily agricultural southernmost part of the Ecological Landscape in Burnett County. Impoundments, all fairly small, have been created by constructing dams on the Tamarack and Black rivers, and several creeks. The St. Croix River is fed by springs, spring ponds, and seepages.
The present-day forests remain extensive and relatively unbroken, occupying about 68% of the landscape. Forests consist mainly of aspen, paper birch, sugar maple, basswood, spruce and fir. Minor amounts of white pine, red pine and red oak are also present. Older successional stages are currently rare, as almost all of this land is managed as "working forests". The large undisturbed peatland complexes consist of mosaics of black spruce-tamarack swamp, muskeg, open bog, poor fen, shrub swamp, and occasionally, white cedar swamp. The St. Croix River corridor includes forested bluffs and terraces, which support communities unlike those found in most other parts of the Ecological Landscape. These include mesic maple-basswood forest, dry-mesic forests of oak or oak mixed with pine, black ash-dominated hardwood swamps, and numerous forested seeps. Less extensive areas of marsh and sedge meadow also occur along the St. Croix. In most of this Ecological Landscape minor amounts of land are devoted to agricultural and residential uses, and most of these land uses are concentrated along State Highway 35. The major exception to this pattern is the area that wraps around the south end of the Northwest Sands which is a mix of agricultural lands and scattered oak or oak-pine woodlots.
(based on data from Douglas county.)
43,721, 0.8% of the state total
32 persons/ sq. mile (Includes City of Superior which is not in the Ecological Landscape)
Per Capita Income
Important Economic Sectors
The largest employment sectors in 2007 were: Government (16.5%); tourism-related (15.0%), retail trade (11.8%) and health care and social services (10.3%). Forestry is the sector that has the largest impact on the natural resources in the Ecological Landscape.
The most significant Federal ownership is the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, administered by the National Park Service; State-owned lands include portions of Governor Knowles State Forest, Pattison State Park, several State Natural Areas, and the Gandy Dancer State Trail; the Douglas County Forest occupies a major portion of this Ecological Landscape. A list of public land ownership (county, state, and federal) in this Ecological Landscape can be found in Appendix G at the end of this chapter.
Other Notable Ownerships
Minnesota's Nemadji State Forest and St. Croix State Park are immediately west of this Ecological Landscape.
|Considerations for Planning & Management|
Avoid fragmentation of extensive forests, wetlands, and potential travel and dispersal corridors, e.g., via infrastructure development, or management activities; select a subset of forest interior species to monitor; identify opportunities to increase older forest, the abundance of conifers, and large forest patches; conduct aquatic surveys of headwaters streams; assess adequacy of protection for the aquatic and terrestrial resources of the St. Croix-Namekagon river system and identify opportunities to increase that protection if and where it's needed. The St. Croix corridor is used heavily by migratory birds, and may be important for other taxa as well. Ensure that DNR property managers have the background and inventory information they need to develop new property master plans. Communicate across jurisdictional borders to increase awareness of issues beyond individual property boundaries and enhance management compatibility where that would be advantageous.
Species of Greatest Conservation Need
The following species are listed according to their probability of occurring in the Northwest Lowlands Ecological Landscape, based on the findings in the Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan.
|American Bittern||Botaurus lentiginosus||3|
|American Woodcock||Scolopax minor||3|
|Black-backed Woodpecker||Picoides arcticus||3|
|Black-billed Cuckoo||Coccyzus erythropthalmus||3|
|Brown Thrasher||Toxostoma rufum||3|
|Canada Warbler||Wilsonia canadensis||3|
|Connecticut Warbler||Oporornis agilis||3|
|Golden-winged Warbler||Vermivora chrysoptera||3|
|Le Conte's Sparrow||Ammodramus leconteii||3|
|Least Flycatcher||Empidonax minimus||3|
|Louisiana Waterthrush||Seiurus motacilla||3|
|Northern Harrier||Circus cyaneus||3|
|Olive-sided Flycatcher||Contopus cooperi||3|
|Black Tern||Chlidonias niger||2|
|Blue-winged Teal||Anas discors||2|
|Boreal Chickadee||Poecile hudsonica||2|
|Northern Goshawk||Accipiter gentilis||2|
|Red Crossbill||Loxia curvirostra||2|
|Rusty Blackbird||Euphagus carolinus||2|
|Solitary Sandpiper||Tringa solitaria||2|
|Wood Thrush||Hylocichla mustelina||2|
|American Golden Plover||Pluvialis dominica||1|
|Bald Eagle||Haliaeetus leucocephalus||1|
|Black-throated Blue Warbler||Dendroica caerulescens||1|
|Blue-winged Warbler||Vermivora pinus||1|
|Eastern Meadowlark||Sturnella magna||1|
|Field Sparrow||Spizella pusilla||1|
|Grasshopper Sparrow||Ammodramus savannarum||1|
|Henslow's Sparrow||Ammodramus henslowii||1|
|Horned Grebe||Podiceps auritus||1|
|Hudsonian Godwit||Limosa haemastica||1|
|Lesser Scaup||Aythya affinis||1|
|Marbled Godwit||Limosa fedoa||1|
|Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow||Ammodramus nelsoni||1|
|Red-shouldered Hawk||Buteo lineatus||1|
|Short-billed Dowitcher||Limnodromus griseus||1|
|Spruce Grouse||Falcipennis canadensis||1|
|Trumpeter Swan||Cygnus buccinator||1|
|Vesper Sparrow||Pooecetes gramineus||1|
|Western Meadowlark||Sturnella neglecta||1|
|Willow Flycatcher||Empidonax traillii||1|
|Yellow-billed Cuckoo||Coccyzus americanus||1|
|Gilt Darter||Percina evides||3|
|Greater Redhorse||Moxostoma valenciennesi||3|
|Lake Sturgeon||Acipenser fulvescens||3|
|River Redhorse||Moxostoma carinatum||3|
|Longear Sunfish||Lepomis megalotis||2|
|Reptiles and Amphibians||Score|
|Boreal Chorus Frog||Pseudacris maculata||3|
|Four-toed Salamander||Hemidactylium scutatum||3|
|Mink Frog||Rana septentrionalis||3|
|Pickerel Frog||Rana palustris||2|
|Gray Wolf||Canis lupus||3|
|Northern Flying Squirrel||Glaucomys sabrinus||3|
|Water Shrew||Sorex palustris||3|
|Woodland Jumping Mouse||Napaeozapus insignis||3|
|American Marten||Martes americana||2|
|Eastern Red Bat||Lasiurus borealis||2|
|Hoary Bat||Lasiurus cinereus||2|
|Northern Long-eared Bat||Myotis septentrionalis||2|
|Silver-haired Bat||Lasionycteris noctivagans||2|
|Franklin's Ground Squirrel||Spermophilus franklinii||1|
Natural community management opportunities
The Northwest Lowlands Ecological Landscape contains opportunities to manage for the following natural communities, based on the findings in the Wildlife Action Plan (originally presented by the Ecosystem Management Team).
|Natural Community Type||Opportunity|
|Northern Sedge Meadow||Major|
|Northern Wet Forest||Major|
|Northern Dry-mesic Forest||Important|
|Northern Mesic Forest||Important|
|Northern Wet-mesic Forest||Important|
|Northern Dry Forest||Present|
|Northern Hardwood Swamp||Present|
Description of Terms Used to Define Opportunities for Protection, Restoration and/or Management of Natural Communities by Ecological Landscapes
A major opportunity for sustaining the natural community in the Ecological Landscape exists, either because many significant occurrences of the natural community have been recorded in the landscape or major restoration activities are likely to be successful maintaining the community's composition, structure, and ecological function over a longer period of time.
Although the natural community does not occur extensively or commonly in the Ecological Landscape, one to several occurrences do occur and are important in sustaining the community in the state. In some cases, important opportunities may exist because the natural community may be restricted to just one or a few Ecological Landscapes within the state and there may be a lack of opportunities elsewhere.
The natural community occurs in the Ecological Landscape, but better management opportunities appear to exist in other parts of the state.
General management opportunities 1
The Northwest Lowlands is one of the few Wisconsin Ecological Landscapes with large areas of remote habitat. The northern portion of the Northwest Lowlands features extensive forests undisturbed wetlands that are largely unbroken by farms, urban areas, or other developments and only a few major roads cross this portion of the landscape. Maintaining this large, contiguous area of undeveloped and lightly roaded forest is a major opportunity. In addition, there are opportunities to develop and maintain older forest, increase structural attributes associated with older forests and identify high conservation value forests on public lands. Areas with the potential to increase the diminished conifer component could also be identified; areas adjacent to existing stands of lowland conifers and muskeg might be especially good candidates for this.
There are several opportunities to work with partners across administrative (federal, state, county, private) boundaries. For example, the Northwest Lowlands is a small part of an ecoregion that extends well into Minnesota. Black Lake Bog, a two-state designated Natural Area on the MN-WI state line, provides opportunities to cooperate and coordinate management with Minnesota DNR for wide-ranging fauna such as gray wolf, moose, some birds and the habitat these species require. The National Park Service (NPS) has primary stewardship responsibilities for resources in and immediately adjacent to the St. Croix River. State, county and private entities have opportunities to continue to work with NPS on basic inventory, monitoring and management projects pertinent to this area. In general, there are good opportunities to provide and maintain corridors for species moving within the landscape, as well as to and from other landscapes.
The St. Croix River is an exceptional aquatic resource and supports outstanding aquatic diversity with numerous rare species. The forested corridor along the upper St. Croix also supports significant populations of rare birds. Maintaining an unbroken natural landscape and protecting stream corridors (e.g., the Spruce and Tamarack rivers) and the watersheds of streams that flow into the St. Croix River is important for maintaining the high-quality aquatic habitats, recreational opportunities and aesthetic values of this ecosystem. Several streams, such as the Black and Amnicon rivers, originate in this Ecological Landscape, flow north to Lake Superior and offer opportunities to maintain important aquatic and shoreline habitats and contribute to high water quality within the Northwest Lowlands and beyond.
The large, intact peatlands here are outstanding natural features and contain some of Wisconsin's best examples of peatland communities. Many sensitive species are dependent on these wetlands to provide suitable breeding and foraging habitat. Several of the large wetlands have been identified as high conservation priorities and merit the strongest protection possible. In addition, these wetlands are the headwaters areas of some of the Northwest Lowlands most important streams.
1. The text presented here is a summarized version of a longer section developed for the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin Handbook.
Northwest Lowlands maps
Printable maps from the Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin Handbook.
- Finley's Vegetation of the Mid-1800s
- Land Cover of the Mid-1800's
- Landtype Associations (LTAs)
- Public Land Ownership, Easements and Private Land Enrolled in Forest Tax Programs
- Ecologically Significant Places
- Exceptional and Outstanding Resource Waters and 303(d) Degraded Waters (2010 Update)
- WISCLAND Land Cover (1992)
- Soil Regions
- Relative Tree Density in the Mid-1800s
- Population Density, Cities, and Transportation
Also see the statewide maps from the Ecological Landscapes Handbook.
Northwest Lowlands Landtype Associations
Landtype Associations (LTAs) are units of the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units (NHFEU), a hierarchical ecological land classification system. LTAs are much smaller than Ecological Landscapes, ranging in size from 10,000 and 300,000 acres. In Wisconsin, they are usually based on glacial features like individual moraines or outwash plains. LTAs can be very useful for planning at finer scales within an Ecological Landscape.
The following are the LTAs associated with the Northwest Lowlands Ecological Landscape. The Northwest Lowlands LTA map can be used to locate these LTAs. Clicking on an LTA in the list below will open a data table for that LTA in PDF format. Descriptions are included, where available.