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Boat, gear and equipment decontamination and disinfection manual code

This page outlines best management practices (BMP) for the decontamination of boats, equipment and gear to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) between waters. It is supplemental to Manual Code #9183.1 Boat, Gear and Equipment Decontamination and Disinfection Protocol, which requires all Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources employees, agents and service providers, and some permitees to take steps to decontaminate boats, gear and equipment when transporting equipment. Members of the general public who use boats and/or participate in water recreation are required to follow the decontamination procedures in s. NR 40.02(44). Following the disinfection BMPs listed on this webpage is not required for members of the general public participating in recreational boating and other water activities. If you are unsure if you are required to follow this guidance, please contact the person that issued your contract or permit or the invasive species team.

BMPs are the current best procedures to decontaminate gear to be in compliance with Manual Code #9183.1. They represent the most stringent actions water users can take to ensure AIS are not being moved by their activities, and will be periodically updated to reflect the latest scientific findings for decontamination. The guidelines outlined in this document cover many gear types, but do not cover all gear types. Boats, gear and equipment not expressly mentioned in this document that come in contact with surface waters are still subject to Manual Code #9183.1.

General practices

Before

Before

  • Be aware of infestations in your management area. The "Where to find aquatic invasive species records [PDF]" document has been created to assist in finding where species have been documented and verified across the state.
  • If a high percentage of work is done in waters with invasive species, consider dedicating certain gear to be used only in those waters.
  • If possible, work with local volunteers and use their boats to collect samples. If the volunteer’s boat is staying on the water body, then the department’s equipment will be the only items that need to be disinfected.
  • When working on multiple water bodies, organize sampling so least infested waters are monitored first and most infested waters last.
  • Arrange sampling plans to progress from the least to the most likely to be contaminated areas when working within the same water body. When working on different reaches of the same stream, decontaminate whenever equipment crosses a barrier while going upstream.
  • Consider purchase of wading gear and boots with the fewest places for organisms and debris to become attached. One-piece systems with full rubber material and open cleat soles are recommended to reduce likelihood of AIS spread. Multi-piece wading systems with fabrics, detachable boots and felt soles are more likely to transport AIS. Mud/rock guards are recommended for all stocking-foot waders to minimize contamination on inside surfaces.

During

During

  • Keep an eye out for any invasive species that may not have been previously recorded but may get on your gear if present. Adjust decontamination plans and follow Wisconsin's Rapid Response Framework [PDF] when new occurrences are observed.
  • Sample from upstream to downstream in a watershed or from areas of less vegetative growth to dense vegetative growth.
  • Minimize wading and avoid running boats into sediment or through infested areas when possible.
  • Consider using bank-sampling poles instead of wading.
  • Reduce the amount of plants, sediment or organisms that are removed from the water into boats or sampling gear.
  • Regularly inspect and clean gear while working.

After

After

  • Fully inspect equipment and hand-remove any visible aquatic or terrestrial organisms present. This step, on average, reduces the amount of vegetation on a boat by 88%.
  • Only use pressure washing if it’s used in conjunction with hot water or on the site where work took place. Otherwise it can aid in the spread of AIS since it removes organisms, but does may not kill them.
  • Whenever possible, scrub equipment with a stiff-bristled brush and/or wash with soapy water. This simple step will aid in the removal of small organisms and seeds, as well as remove organic materials that make disinfection less effective. Scrubbing could damage the anti-fouling paint/coating of some boat hulls so check manufacturers’ recommendations.
  • When brushing fabric, be careful to brush with the nap (direction of fabric), as brushing against the nap could cause small seeds to become more imbedded. Brushing should be followed by a rinse with clean water.

Gear-specific methods

Personal gear

Personal gear

  • To remove debris, scrub personal gear with a stiff-bristle brush and rinse with clean water (municipal, bottled, well, etc.), and then refer to one of the disinfection options outlined in the manual code.
  • An adhesive roller can be used on clothing to remove seeds and plant materials that could spread.
  • Note that hot water and steam can damage technical fabrics (e.g. Goretex) and melt seams of waders/boots.
  • Heat resistant gloves, nitrile gloves, splash goggles, face shield, emergency eyewash stations and other personal protective equipment should be purchased at a department approved vendor outlined in state contracts.
  • • When using chlorine or Virkon® Aquatic solution on personal equipment, some individuals spray and place equipment in plastic bags to maintain a wet surface for the desired contact time, however, soaking has been found to be more effective with certain species/disinfectant combinations, and bagging sprayed equipment does not increase the efficacy of spray applications.

Sampling gear

Sampling gear

  • There are several options for disinfecting smaller gear while in the field, but the first step is to always remove any organic material from sampling gear. Scrubbing gear with a stiff bristled brush is helpful.
  • Dissolved oxygen probes and other sensitive electronic sampling gear may be damaged by the disinfection methods listed in the manual code and should only be rinsed with clean water (municipal, bottled, well, etc.). See manufacturer’s instructions for further directions on the cleaning of sensitive gear such as sondes, hydrolabs and dataloggers.
  • For other gear used in water choose one of the following options after scrubbing and rinsing: Use steam, hot water, chlorine solution or Virkon® Aquatic solution to disinfect equipment.
  • If using Chlorine or Virkon® Aquatic solution, fill a tub with disinfection solution and place all equipment in the tub for the appropriate contact time. While soaking is preferred, it is also possible to spray gear with a disinfection solution so a wet surface is maintained for the appropriate contact time, however, this method is not as effective as soaking. The gear should be rinsed with clean water (i.e. municipal, bottled, well, etc.) after applying disinfection to maintain the integrity of the equipment.
  • Use a completely new set of gear for each waterbody during the workday and disinfect all gear at the end of the day using the options outlined in the manual code.

Nets

Nets

  • Organic debris must be removed prior to disinfection. The most effective way to remove organic debris from nets is via of method of rinsing. Power washing is not required, but nets could be sprayed with a garden hose to remove debris.
  • Nets may be steam cleaned, washed and dried thoroughly for five days, or washed and treated with a disinfection solution. Nets should be placed in the disinfection solution for the appropriate contact time for the solution being used. After rinsing, the nets can be used immediately, or hung to dry.

Boats

Boats

  • Remove organic material from boats, trailers and live wells.
  • Drain water from live wells, bilges and pumps.
  • Scrub all exterior surfaces with a long-handled stiff bristled brush to remove sediments. Scrubbing could damage the anti-fouling paint/coating of some boat hulls so check manufacturers recommendations. The outside and inside of the boat, trailer, live wells, bilges and pumps should be steam cleaned or sprayed with the disinfection solution and left wet for the appropriate contact time.
  • The inside of the live wells, bilges and pumps should be in contact with disinfection solution for the appropriate time as well.
  • Due to the difficulty of ensuring appropriate contact times, steam cleaning is the preferred method for decontamination when possible.
  • Run pumps so they take in the disinfection solution and make sure that the solution comes in contact with all parts of the pump and hose.
  • The boat, trailer, bilges, live well and pumps should be rinsed with clean water after the appropriate contact time.
  • Every effort should be made to keep the disinfection solution and rinse water out of surface waters. Pull the boat and trailer off the ramp and onto a level area where infiltration can occur and away from street drains to minimize potential runoff into surface waters.

Motors

Motors

  • After removing from the water, scrub sediments off the exterior of the motor and then tip the motor down and allow water to drain from engine.
  • For motors moored in water for several days or more, submerge the lower unit in a container of disinfectant and run the motor to ensure contact with all internal parts and allow for the appropriate contact time. Alternatively, rig up a bucket with a thru hull fitting on the bottom and attach that fitting to a short (6-foot) piece of garden hose to lower unit muffs.
  • Install a small valve between the hose and the muffs to control the flow of disinfectant. The pail of the disinfectant can then be set in the back of the boat and gravity fed into the lower unit.
  • Next start the engine and run it just long enough to see the solution to run out the exhaust and the tell-tale.
  • Never run the engine without disinfectant or fresh water flowing into the lower unit.
  • Allow solution to remain in motor for the appropriate contact time.
  • A non-corrosive (Virkon® Aquatic) is recommended for use to protect the impeller.
  • Rinse external surfaces with clean water after disinfection.
  • Flush motor with fresh water for 2 minutes following instructions outlined in owner’s manual.

Heavy equipment

Heavy equipment

  • Scrub equipment with a stiff bristled brush or spray with pressurized water to remove any sediment.
  • Steam-cleaning or hot water (≥140° F) is an effective method for disinfecting heavy equipment.
  • Steam-cleaning will not be effective if soil and other organic matter is present so be sure to scrub equipment with a stiff bristled brush.
  • Decontamination should take place in areas where equipment is unloaded and loaded.
  • Before transporting a piece of heavy equipment from one project site to the next, debris and soil must be cleaned off the tracks, tires and other portions equipment by hand with hand tools or with pressurized water.

Method-specific information

While simple prevention methods, such as hand removal, can reduce the majority of AIS found on gear and equipment, additional decontamination methods are still required to get rid of any elements that may not be seen. The manual code has been developed with this in mind and gives employees a range of effective methods for disinfecting equipment, as well as the ability to choose which options are practical for specific situations. The following section will provide more detail on each disinfection option outlined in the manual code.

Steam

Steam

  • Steam is effective in killing a wide range of organisms and fish pathogens.
  • Steam cleaners can work well in small spaces, and on items such as small boat hulls, clothing and heavy equipment. To be the most effective, all sides of equipment being treated should be sprayed, as well as the inside of equipment.
  • When setting something on the ground to steam clean, make sure to steam the ground before setting the equipment down.
  • Be careful when steaming over items held together with adhesives, since high temperatures can melt bonds. Inflatable PFDs can also be melted by the use of steam.
  • Use quick strokes with a steam cleaner instead of lingering in one place to decrease the likelihood of causing damage to equipment.
  • When using a low-pressure steam cleaner, steam clean in an enclosed area to ensure proper contact with equipment.
  • Orange cones should be used to mark off areas where steaming is taking place.
  • Make sure to use clean water (i.e. municipal, bottled, well, etc.) when steam cleaning to prevent clogging of steam cleaners.
  • When you have an option of nozzle types, make sure you pick one that is suited to the surface being steamed and that will ensure the most contact time.
  • All employees who handle steam cleaners shall wear heat resistant gloves. Depending on the type of steamer used, additional heat resistant personal protective equipment (PPE) may be required as well. Refer to the equipment’s operation manual for suggested PPE. Be aware that scalding can occur if PPE is not used.

Hot water

Hot water

  • Hot water works by physically removing AIS and killing some AIS. While some species are killed at lower temperatures, the manual code requires hot water to be at least 140 º F in order to kill the most species.
  • Suggested contact time to kill the most species is 10 minutes.
  • This method becomes more effective when applied with high pressure.
  • It is important to note, most self-serve car washes do not get hot enough to meet the manual code’s temperature requirement.
  • To verify that the hot water spray is effectively heating the contact area, a non-contact infrared thermometer can be purchased at home supply stores for around $30. The distance of reading depends on the product purchased. Be sure to read the product label.
  • Wear heat resistant gloves when cleaning equipment with hot water.

Drying

Drying

  • Make sure equipment and gear is completely dried during drying period. Surfaces may appear dry while the interior is still wet. Waders, boots, wetsuits, fabric and wood may be difficult to dry thoroughly.
  • If using shared equipment, it is recommended to keep a log of when things are used to ensure the minimum drying period has been met. If there is any possibility of another individual using the shared equipment before the five-day drying period is reached, it is safer to disinfect via other means.

Virkon®

Virkon®

  • Virkon® Aquatic is a powder disinfectant in the peroxygen (hydrogen peroxide) family that is 99.9% biodegradable and breaks down to water and oxygen.
  • Virkon® Aquatic is a good option for small equipment that has come into contact with sediments and is the best method to use on equipment that has been used in areas that are known to have New Zealand mud snail (Potamopytrgus antipodarum, NZMS) populations or might be vulnerable to NZMS.
  • Virkon® Aquatic should not be used on items made of wood. Since solution soaks into the wood, wood may carry residues that could be harmful to fish.
  • Labeling for Virkon® Aquatic says it is not corrosive at the recommended dilution, however, solutions have been shown to cause degradation to gear and equipment when used repeatedly.
  • Negative impacts of Virkon can be reduced by rinsing equipment with clean water (municipal, bottled, well, etc.) after disinfection is complete.
  • The DNR has had Virkon® Aquatic tested for safety by Stantec. This study found that airborne concentrations of Virkon® Aquatic are well below regulatory limits, but that employees should always wear nitrile gloves, chemical splash goggles and/or face shields when mixing solutions.
  • The 2% Virkon Aquatic® solution should be disposed of by diluting to 1% or lower and dispose as per site regulations. Please speak with the facility or lab manager to learn more about site regulations.
  • When disposed of down a drain, Virkon® Aquatic uses oxidative mechanisms and will use any left-over product to oxidize organic sludge in the drain.
  • As is outlined in the manual code, test strips can be purchased to test the concentration of Virkon® Aquatic solutions.
  • Virkon® Aquatic and Virkon® Aquatic test strips are available from Western Chemical.
  • The Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for Virkon® Aquatic can be found in the Additional Resources section.

Chlorine

Chlorine

  • A chlorine solution of 500ppm (1.22 fl. oz. or 2.44 Tablespoon of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution of household bleach per gallon water) is recommended by the manual code because it is effective at killing many AIS and fish diseases at this concentration. It is not effective on spiny water flea resting eggs or NZMS. For this reason, it is recommended to follow chlorine solution treatments with an additional disinfection method. In the event of an emergency, treatment with chlorine solution on its own will be sufficient to meet manual code requirements.
  • Use fresh chlorine solutions - chlorine concentrations in solutions deteriorate with time, exposure to light and heat and on contact with air, metals, metallic ions and organic materials.
  • There are no differences in disinfection abilities between solutions using tap water versus sterile water to mix the diluted chlorine solution, and the cleaning and disinfection abilities of diluted chlorine solutions are not impacted by the temperature of the water used.
  • Chlorine solutions will begin to lose disinfecting properties after 24 hours, and the more diluted the chlorine solution, the quicker it will deteriorate. Based on this information, it is important to use 0.5% bleach solutions that are less than 24 hours old.
  • When using household bleach as a chlorine source, it is also important to be aware of bleach shelf life. If stored at a temperature between 50 and 70 º F, household bleach retains its disinfection properties for about six months, after which, it degrades into salt and water at a rate of 20% each year. If bleach is stored in locations with higher temperatures, such as a garage or the back of a truck, it will lose its disinfection properties at a quicker pace. Therefore, new bleach should be purchased for purposes of decontamination at the beginning of each field season. If using bleach year round for decontamination, new bleach should be purchased every 6 months.
  • Make sure old bleach is disposed of properly and away from surface waters.
  • Chlorine solutions may have corrosive effects on certain articles of equipment, however, these effects can be reduced by rinsing equipment with clean water after disinfection is complete.
  • Chlorine solution in the form of household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) can be purchased from a grocery or convenience store. Granular chlorine (70% calcium hypochlorite) can be purchased from a pool supply company.
  • When using a large quantity of chlorine solution to disinfect equipment, any excess solution must be inactivated with sodium thiosulfate prior to disposal. Enough sodium thiosulfate should be added to create an 800 ppm solution (3 grams per gallon of water) to neutralize the chlorine solution. Equipment that was treated with chlorine solution does not need to be sprayed with a sodium thiosulfate solution. Sodium thiosulfate is available through pool and chemical supply companies.
  • Because different brands of bleach vary on the amount of sodium hypochlorite used, different amounts on bleach will need to be used to create a disinfection solution of 500ppm

Table 1 Converting household bleach to 500 parts per million of chlorine solution:

Sodium hypochlorite concentration (%) Ounces chlorine solution per gallon water Tbsp. chlorine solution per gallon water
5.0 1.28 2.56
5.25 1.22 2.44
8.25 0.78 1.55

Freezing

Freezing

  • Due to the threat that fish pathogens pose on our fisheries, and the ability of these pathogens to survive freezing temperatures, freezing is not being allowed on its own as a method for disinfection. It can, however be used as an extra step in tandem with other disinfection methods.
  • Using chlorine solution in tandem with freezing will be sufficient to address most invasive species.
Last revised: Wednesday July 27 2016