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Long-spurred Violet (Viola rostrata)
Long-spurred Violet (Viola rostrata), a State Special Concern plant, is found in rich hardwood or hemlock-northern hardwood forests, mostly near Lake Michigan. Blooming occurs late May through late June; fruiting occurs throughout July. The optimal identification period for this species is late May through late June.
Synonyms: Viola rostrata var. elongata
- Distinguishing characteristics: Lateral petals beardless, spur 7 to 12 mm; style tip straight.
- Flower characteristics: Flowers elevated above the leaves; petals light violet, with darker veins forming a pronounced eye, all beardless.
- Fruit characteristics: Fruit stoutly ellipsoid, 5 to 6 mm; seeds light yellow-brown.
- Leaf characteristics: Alternate, ovate, often broadly so, 2 to 4 cm, heart-shaped at base, all but the lowermost acute; stipules lanceolate, fringe-toothed above the middle.
- Blooming phenology: late May through late June
- Fruiting phenology: throughout July
- Optimum time to identify: late May through late June
- Growth form: Forb-erect
- Vegetative reproduction: Rhizomatous
- Life cycle: Perennial
- Comments: Associated Species: Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, Pinus strobus, Betula alleghaniensis, Tilia americana, Fagus grandifolia, Tsuga canadensis, Allium tricoccum, Anemone quinquefolia, Maianthemum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, Uvularia grandiflora.
Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin
The table below provides information about the protected status - state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Long-spurred Violet (Viola rostrata). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where this species has been found to date and is not meant as a range map.
|Federal Status in Wisconsin||none|
|Tracked by NHI||Y|
Habitats and landscapes
The Natural Heritage Inventory has developed scores indicating the degree to which each of Wisconsin's rare plant species is associated with a particular natural community or ecological landscape. This information is similar to that found in the Wildlife Action Plan for animals. As this is a work in progress, we welcome your suggestions and feedback.
General habitat information
- Habitat description: Found in rich hardwood or hemlock-northern hardwood forests, mostly near Lake Michigan.
- Soils: Deep humus.
This table lists the natural communities that are associated with Long-spurred Violet. Scores for natural community associations are: "significant" association (score=3), "moderate association" (score=2) or the species can be present but is only weakly associated with the community (score=1).
|Northern Mesic Forest||3|
This table lists the ecological landscape association scores for Long-spurred Violet. The scores (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None) also correspond to the map.
The Endangered Resources Program has developed avoidance measures and management guidelines for plants on the Natural Heritage Working List. These are a work in progress, and we welcome your suggestions and feedback. Sources used in developing this information can be found here.
These are specific actions designed to avoid "take" (mortality) of this species.
- Avoid known individual plant locations and conduct operations elsewhere when they are least likely to cause damage. Ideally, this would involve frozen, snow-covered ground. However, in areas of the state where frozen conditions are unreliable, very dry soils late in the growing season might be the best available alternative. Consult with a biologist, if needed.
- Avoid broadcast spraying of herbicides; use care with spot spraying.
- Avoid site preparation that heavily disturbs herbaceous ground layer and soil; these include bulldozing and furrowing, as well as grubbing and stump removal.
Management guidelines are additional considerations that may help maintain or enhance habitat for this species
- Maintain high forest canopy cover; this species requires shaded habitat conditions.
Links to additional Long-spurred Violet information
Other links related to vascular plants (all exit the DNR website)
- Wisconsin Vascular Plants
- Freckmann Herbarium
- Atlas of Wisconsin Prairie and Savanna Flora - Wisconsin State Herbarium
- USDA - NRCS Plants Database
- USGS Midwestern Wetland Flora - field office guide to plant species
- Cofrin Center for Biodiversity Herbarium
- Intermountain Herbarium Grasses of North America
- Orchids of Wisconsin
Support for Wisconsin's rare plant information has been provided by the Division of Forestry, the Endangered Resources Fund and the Wisconsin Rare Plant Preservation Fund. To donate, visit the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin.