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Contact information
For information on Wisconsin's rare animals, contact:
Rich Staffen
Conservation Biologist
608-266-4340

Striped Shiner (Luxilus chrysocephalus)


Overview

Overview

Striped Shiner (Luxilus (Notropis) chrysocephalus), a fish listed as Endangered in Wisconsin, has not been recorded in the state since 1996, despite surveys. Historically, this species preferred clear to slightly turbid waters of runs and shallow pools of the lower Milwaukee River, with dense aquatic vegetation over substrates of cobble, boulders, silt, sand, mud or bedrock.

State status

Status and Natural Heritage Inventory documented occurrences in Wisconsin

The table below provides information about the protected status - both state and federal - and the rank (S and G Ranks) for Striped Shiner (Luxilus chrysocephalus). See the Working List Key for more information about abbreviations. Counties shaded blue have documented occurrences for this species in the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory database. The map is provided as a general reference of where occurrences of this species meet NHI data standards and is not meant as a comprehensive map of all observations.

Note: Species recently added to the NHI Working List may temporarily have blank occurrence maps.


Documented locations of Luxilus chrysocephalus in the Natural Heritage Inventory Database as of July 2015.
Summary Information
State StatusEND
Federal Status in Wisconsinnone
State RankSH
Global RankG5
Tracked by NHIY
WWAP SGCN

Species guidance


Note: a species guidance document is not available at this time. Information below was compiled from publication ER-091.

Identification: Striped shiners are very similar to and difficult to distinguish from common shiners, with which they have almost always co-occurred and hybridized with in Wisconsin. Hybridization between these two species may have occurred even 100 years ago. Striped shiners differ in having larger predorsal scales (fewer than 17), heavily pigmented tip of chin and numerous parallel dark lines on the sides converging at the mid-back rather than a mid-dorsal stripe and one or two lateral dark stripes. Green or blue olive dorsally, sides blue silver, belly white silver. Prominent mid-dorsal, broad and slate colored stripe. Adult length: 2-4 inches (58-102mm).

Habitat: Clear to slightly turbid (cloudy) waters, 0.3-4.8 feet (0.1-1.5m) over gravel, rubble, boulders, silt or sand. Often seen in dense aquatic vegetation. Sometimes present in large schools at the foot of riffles and shallow, hard-bottomed pools with some flow.

State Distribution: Historically found in eastern-half of Wisconsin with the largest concentrations of records from Fox River watershed (Winnebago County) and the lower Milwaukee River. In the mid-1990s all of the known locations were re-surveyed and only one individual in the lower Milwaukee River was found. Subsequent surveys of the Milwaukee River site in the 2000s did not relocate any individuals. Additional targeted surveys are needed to determine if the species has become extirpated from the state.

Phenology: Striped shiners spawn over pebble mound nests of hornyhead chub or in the gravel crevice or crater-like nests made by males or by other species, like the creek chub, central or largescale stoneroller. Spawning occurs from mid-late May through mid-late June. A spawning group is dominated by a large breeding male who keeps any invading fish away from his school of mature females.

Diet: The type of food eaten depends on seasonal abundance of aquatic insects, algae and other plant material.

Management Guidelines: The striped shiner's shrinking range and possible extirpation from the state may be due to a combination of hybridization, increasing siltation, turbidity and temporary drying up of small creeks during late summer. Agricultural pollution along rivers should be minimized and perhaps the upper sections should be set aside as refuge for these and other sensitive, nongame fish and invertebrates.

Photos/Video

Photos


Striped Shiner

Anterior top view of a striped shiner X common shiner hybrid (?): There are about 23-24 predorsal scales, indicating greater proximity to the common shiner than to the striped shiner.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up chin of a Striped shiner X Common shiner hybrid (?): Notice the slight pigment on the chin edge, indicating greater proximity to the common shiner than to the striped shiner.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up underside of head: Notice the wash of brownish/black pigment on the anterior 1/3 of the chin (the blotch in the middle is not typical).

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view of a breeding male: Notice the steel blue and reddish colors, the greatly elevated lateral-line scales, and the tubercles on the head.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up chin of a breeding male: Notice the tubercles and the absence of obvious pigment on the chin, which may fade in breeding males.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view of a striped shiner X common shiner hybrid (?): This hybrid is indistinguishable from parentals in side view.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view of a breeding male: This male is just starting to develop breeding tubercles and colors.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up flank: Notice the elevated lateral-line scales, which is diagnostic of the Luxilus group.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view of a yearling: Notice the more elongated body and the less elevated lateral-line scales.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Head area of a yearling: Notice the more elongated body and the less elevated lateral-line scales.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Anterior top view: There are usually less than 19 pre-dorsal scales between nape and dorsal fin.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Top view of a breeding male: Notice the tubercles and the faint stripes on the back.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view of breeding male and female: Notice the lack of markings on the female.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up mouth and snout of a male just starting to develop breeding tubercles.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up anal fin: There are nine (rarely 8 or 10) anal fin rays.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Head of a breeding male: Notice the tubercles.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up pectoral fin.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up dorsal fin.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up pelvic fin.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Head-on view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Bottom view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up anal fin.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Side view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Top view adult.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up flank.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up head.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.

Striped Shiner

Close-up tail.

Photo by John Lyons, WDNR.


Wildlife Action Plan

Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan graphic

Natural community (habitat) associations

The table below lists the natural communities that are associated with Striped Shiner. Only natural communities for which Striped Shiner is "high" (score=3) or "moderate" (score=2) associated are shown. See the key to association scores for complete definitions. Please see the Wildlife Action Plan to learn how this information was developed.

Natural community Score
Warmwater streams 3

Ecological landscape associations

The table below lists the ecological landscape association scores for Striped Shiner. The scores correspond to the map (3=High, 2=Moderate, 1=Low, 0=None). For more information, please see the Wildlife Action Plan.

This map shows the probability of Striped Shiner occurring in each of Wisconsin's Ecological Landscapes.  Actual scores can be found in the table to the left.




Ecological landscape score
Southern Lake Michigan Coastal 3

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Landscape-Community combinations of highest ecological priority*

Ecological priorities are the combinations of natural communities and ecological landscapes that provide Wisconsin's best opportunities to conserve important habitats for a given Species of Greatest Conservation Need. The 10 highest scoring combinations are considered ecological priorities and are listed below. More than 10 combinations are listed if multiple combinations tied for 10th place. For more information, please see the Wildlife Action Plan.

Ecological LandscapeCommunity
Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Warmwater streams

* Ecological priority score is a relative measure that is not meant for comparison between species. This score does not consider socio-economical factors that may dictate protection and/or management priorities differently than those determined solely by ecological analysis. Further, a low ecological priority score does not imply that management or preservation should not occur on a site if there are important reasons for doing so locally.

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Issues/threats and conservation actions

Conservation actions respond to issues or threats, which adversely affect species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) or their habitats. Besides actions such as restoring wetlands or planting resilient tree species in northern communities, research, surveys and monitoring are also among conservation actions described in the WWAP because lack of information can threaten our ability to successfully preserve and care for natural resources.

Threats/issues and conservations actions for rare animals

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Last revised: Thursday, May 04, 2017